JEL Classification L26, M10, M50
We acknowledge the support and generosity of Kemenristek Dikti Republic of Indonesia as well as Penelitian Terapan Unggulan Perguruan Tinggi (PTUPT) 2019 for this research.
Many previous studies have shown that someone's entrepreneurial orientation is influenced by parenting. Schmitt-Rodermund (2004) said that authoritative parenting affects entrepreneurial competence and entrepreneurial interest. Lindquist, Sol, and van Praag (2012) showed that parental entrepreneurship increases the probability of children 's entrepreneurship about 60%. Research by Thompson, Asarta, Zhang, and LeMarie (2013) showed taht parental experience is a consistent predictor of entrepreneurship choice for contemporary Americans.
The results of these studies assume that parental attachment also has impact on entrepreneurial orientation. Parental Attachment is a reciprocal relationship that is active and involves affection between two individuals. The interaction of the two individuals is different from the interaction with others, and the interaction is intertwined with efforts to maintain closeness (Papalia, 2009). The results showed that parental attachment can have a negative impact on fear of failure and have a positive impact on social adjustment that is strongly associated with entrepreneurial behavior (Bal and Barušs, 2012; Maldini, and Kustanti, 2016).
But on the other hand, the development of adolescents, especially since emerging adolescence, requires stronger peer relationships so as to cause conflict with parents (Lestari and Asyanti, 2009). Peter (2015) said that most teenagers around the age of 14 began to distance themselves from their parents. This condition raises questions about how entrepreneurial orientation in emerging adolescents is viewed from their parental attachments. Are there differences in entrepreneurial orientation in emerging adolescents based on their attachments to their father, mother or both?
2. Literature Review
2.1. Entrepreneurial Orientation
Based on the construct, entrepreneurial orientation has construct as a behavior (Covin and Lumpkin, 2011). There are three dimensions of entrepreneurial orientation, namely innovation, risk taking and being proactive (Covin and Slevin, 1989; Miller, 1983). Innovation is a behavior that explore opportunities, creating creative ideas, trying to implement the thinking and start implementing. Risk taking consists of the bravery to doing in uncertainty and have probability to losing income or getting a loss since borrowing or making a strong dealing to certain sources. Proactive is an individual behavior of initiative, taking action, selling opportunity things and promote to change (Covin and Slevin, 1989; Miller and Friesen, 1982; Lumpkin and Dess, 1996; and Jong and Wennekers, 2008).
While Lumpkin and Dess (1996) revealed that there are five entrepreneurial orientation dimensions. The three of dimensions are the same, namely innovation, taking risks and proactive, and adding two other dimensions, namely independence or autonomy and competitive aggressiveness. The dimension of independence is taking action independently to bring new business and see it will be running. The dimension of competitive aggressiveness is a frequently effort by an institution to outstanding its competitors that showed by attitude of strong attacking or aggressive reactions toward competitive situations (Lumpkin and Dess, 1996). But the competitive aggressive is probably only relevant if it is in a danger situation of business and financial, so it is not relevant enough when implemented to the educational environment (Bolton and Lane, 2012). Behavior of competitive does not have to be attacking or aggressive as well. The attitude of competitiveness in this study refers more to competitive for personal or individual development, which is an individual trait or attitude that the main emphasize of the competition is not to be the winner, but rather to enjoy the competitiveness situation or experience to improve his personal growth (Ryckman, Hammer, Kaczor and Gold, 1996).
The measurement of entrepreneurial orientation has been assessed more frequently in adults. The results of the study (Kurniawan et al., 2019) show that entrepreneurial orientation is more precisely measured by three dimensions. The first dimension is innovativeness. Risk taking and proactive dimension has merged in one dimension, namely risky proactiveness. And the last one is competitiveness. While the dimension of independence or is less relevant to measurements aimed at individual levels.
2.2. Parental Attachment
Stickiness is a strong emotional bond that someone feels towards certain people, which causes a sense of security and joy when interacting with that person. Stickiness also makes a person feel comfortable in times of pressure. Stickiness is an emotional bond between two individuals who are strong enough and the two people do everything to maintain the relationship (Berk, 2000; Papalia, 2009). Parental attachment plays an important role when children step into adolescence (Colin 1996) that "parental attachment to adolescents is important in adolescent life". Strong attachment with parents can protect adolescents from feelings of anxiety and depression or emotional stress during the transition from children to adults (Santrock, 2002).
Attachment with parents has several positive effects. Stickiness can improve exploration behavior and learning abilities in schools (Santrock 2002). Parental attachments can also have an impact on reducing fear of failure and increasing social adjustment (Bal and Barušs, 2012; Maldini, and Kustanti, 2016). In addition, attachment to parents can also facilitate skills and social welfare as reflected in several characteristics such as self-esteem, emotional adjustment, and physical health, resulting in a positive and close relationship with peers and other people outside the family (Santrock, 2003).
The attachment to father (which is negative) can have an impact on juvenile delinquency, while in Mother there is no significant impact (Fitriani and Hastuti, 2016). The attachment of children to mothers has a positive relationship to the independence of the child, but the attachment of children to fathers does not have a positive relationship to children's independence (Prabowo and Aswanti, 2014). Adolescents who have attachments with both parents will have more positive interactions than those who are not close to both parents (Ducharme, Doyle, and Markiewicz, 2002). Based on the description above, the hypothesis of this study is that there are differences in entrepreneurial orientation in emerging adolescents based on parental attachments.
3. Research Method
This study used a quantitative approach with survey methods. The subjects of this study were 291 emerging teens who studied in private junior high school in six major cities in Java that consisted of 48 subjects in Jakarta, 45 subjects in Tangerang, 51 subjects in Bandung, 48 subjects in Yogyakarta, 49 subjects in Semarang and 50 subjects in Surabaya. They consisted of 155 men and 136 women. Their age range consisted of 44 subjects aged 12 years, 124 subjects aged 13 years, 103 subjects aged 14 years, 18 subjects aged 15 years and 2 subjects aged 16 years.
The data collection used the entrepreneurial orientation scale that was developed by Kurniawan, et al. (2019). The scale consisted of seven items of innovation dimension with CITC is 0.402-0.651 and α = 0.791, nine items of risk proactiveness dimension with CITC are 0.562-0.659 and α = 0.871 and eight items of competitiveness dimension CITC 0.414–0.681 and α = 0.823. While parental attachment data is obtained based on four choices, namely "close to father and mother", "close to father", "close to mother", and "not close to both".
This study examined the normal distribution of data with Kolmogorov-Smirnov. Since the distribution of research data is not normal, the hypothesis test uses a non-parametric test, the Kruskal Wallis Test.
4. Analysis and Results
The results of the normality test with Kolmogorov-Smirnov show distribution of entrepreneurial orientation as an abnormal dependent variable, with KS = 0.059; p = 0.015 (p <0.05). The Kruskal Wallis Test shows that there are significant differences in emerging adolescent entrepreneurial orientation when viewed from parental attachments, with Chi-square = 12.558, p = 0.006 (p <0.05). This result showed that the hypothesis has accepted. If the data tested from each dimension, it is found that only the risky proactiveness dimension has a significant difference (Chi-square = 16.931, p = 0.001, p <0.05). While the innovativeness dimension does not have a significant difference (Chi-square = 4.039, p = 0.257, p> 0.05). Similarly, the competitiveness dimension also does not have a significant effect (Chi-square = 7.134, p = 0.068, p> 0.05). The mean rank distribution of entrepreneurial orientation and each dimension based on parental attachments are showed on the Table 1.
Table 1. Mean Rank Distribution of Entrepreneurial Orientation and the Dimensions
|Parental Attachment||N||Mean Rank|
|Entrepreneurial Orientation||Close to father and mother||198||149.07|
|Close to father||14||112.93|
|Close to mother||72||147.85|
|No close to both||7||106.36|
|Innovativeness dimension||Close to father and mother||198||155.15|
|Close to father||14||107.57|
|Close to mother||72||138.59|
|No close to both||7||40.21|
|Risky proactiveness dimension||Close to father and mother||198||150.39|
|Close to father||14||120.89|
|Close to mother||72||145.95|
|No close to both||7||72.64|
|Competitiveness dimension||Close to father and mother||198||152.67|
|Close to father||14||109.82|
|Close to mother||72||143.81|
|No close to both||7||52.36|
Based on Table 1, it can be concluded that in general, the emerging adolescents who are close to their father and mother have the highest level of entrepreneurial orientation and dimensions. While the second rank is for teenagers who are close to their mother, ranked third are adolescents who are close to their father, and lowest commemoration is noted for adolescents who are no close to either parent.
The results of this study are the differences in entrepreneurial orientation in emerging adolescents when viewed from the parental attachment. However, if tested on each dimension of the entrepreneurial orientation, only the risky proactiveness dimension shows a significant difference, while the innovativeness dimension and the competitiveness of the dimension do not show a significant difference. The results of Dirtu and Soponaru (2016) showed that secure attachment has more impact on creativity than insecure attachments.
The results of industrial research also showed that unsecure attachments, which consist of anxiety and avoidance attachments, gave a negative impact on creativity (Kidney, 2013), which ultimately will also negatively impact innovativeness. Similarly, the competitiveness dimension was related to academic performance. The results of Majimbo's study (2017) also showed that adolescents who have secure attachments are positively correlated with academic performance and vice versa. The limitation of this study is not exploring the level of secure parental attachment. There is a possibility that the results will be mixed between secure and insecure so that overall there is no significant difference in the innovativeness dimension and competitiveness dimension.
The risky proactiveness dimension is a combination of risk taking and proactiveness behavior. Maldini and Kustanti (2016) proved that parental secure attachment will have a strong impact on adolescents' self-adjustment which plays an important role in their proactive behavior. On the contrary, insecure attachment, especially closeness avoidance, will have a negative impact on proactive behavior. But in terms of risk taking, even insecurely attachments in emerging adolescents can increase risky sexual behavior and recklessly driving behavior (Bogaert and Sadava, 2002; Taubman-Ben-Ari and Mikulincer, 2007). Thus, both secure and insecure attachments are assumed to have a positive impact on risky attachments.
Emerging adolescents who were close to both people are proven to have the strongest entrepreneurial orientation, followed by adolescents who are close to mothers, adolescents who are near fathers and the smallest are teenagers who are not close to both parents. The results of the research by Ducharme, Doyle, and Markiewicz (2002) showed that those who have an insecure attachment with both parents or in other words not close to both will be more difficult to express their emotions than teens who are close to the once or both parents. Attachment to mother has more impact on emotional expression abilities, while attachment to fathers has more impact on the ability to overcome conflicts with peers. This study assumes that entrepreneurial orientation is more related to emotional expression abilities that will produce proactive and innovative behavior. While the ability to overcome conflict is also needed, although on the other hand the entrepreneurial orientation also requires courage to conflict as part of risk-taking.
The limitations of this study have not been explored in terms of secure and insecure attachments. Further research is suggested to examine adolescent entrepreneurial orientation based on secure and insecure parental attachments.
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