Category - Brian BARNARD

Wits Business School, University of the Witwatersrand, South Africa

Andrea MAKINGS Brian BARNARD

The Heuristics of Entrepreneurs

The study considered and investigated the heuristics of entrepreneurs in the fields of management, strategy, innovation, marketing, sales, HR, and tactics. Overall, a very sophisticated heuristic set was surfaced. None of the areas studied can be described as under-developed. The sophistication of the heuristic set contrasts strongly with previous research on entrepreneurs’ heuristics. Entrepreneurs did not always and initially acknowledge their use of heuristics. It equally implies entrepreneurs may not be actively developing their thinking at all times. Although impressive, comprehensive, and original, the heuristics set may not truly be that distinct from the typical heuristics set of business leaders. Entrepreneurs differ in terms of the level of maturity or comprehensiveness they have reached in terms of the heuristics they consider and use. Entrepreneurs demonstrate natural proficiency and deficiency in terms of heuristics pertaining to areas they excel in and struggle with...

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Anele MTHEMBU Brian BARNARD

Social Entrepreneurship: Objectives, Innovation, Implementation and Impact on Entrepreneurship

The study examines social entrepreneurship from the perspective of: objective and philosophy (why social entrepreneurs are social entrepreneurs), opportunity identification (how social entrepreneurs recognise opportunities), implementation (how social entrepreneurship is implemented), and social entrepreneurship’s contribution to entrepreneurship. The dual objective (some profit, social impact), and strong focus on social impact of the social entrepreneur are highlighted. Although certainly possible, opportunities are encountered and experienced, and thus recognised, rather than actively sought. There are both strong similarities and differences between social entrepreneurship and entrepreneurship opportunities. Innovation is as much a component of social entrepreneurship. Also, the proactiveness and innovativeness of social entrepreneurship are important aspects and concepts. Social entrepreneurship can also be radical and disruptive. Implementation of social entrepreneurship entails...

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Brian BARNARD Derrick HERBST

Entrepreneurship, Innovation and Creativity: The Creative Process of Entrepreneurs and Innovators

The study examines the creative process of entrepreneurs and innovators. It considers how several types of thinking - analytical, analogical, imaginary, intuitive - are involved in creativity and the creative process. It further considers how learning and composite thinking – the integration of the different types of thinking - are incorporated in the creative process. The subsequent analysis covers a number of aspects of creativity and the creative process: 1) attributes, 2) traits, 3) skill, 4) stimulants, 5) process, 6) method and technique, 7) imagination, 8) intuition and the sub-conscious, 9) problem statement, 10) referencing past solutions, 11) the solution space, 12) teams, and 13) factors of success in the market. The prominent role of the intuition and the sub-conscious in creativity is clear. Both the left-brain and right-brain typically contribute to creativity. Perspective formation forms a key component of creativity. There is a semi-formal process to creativity. Both...

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Denzil PILLAY Brian BARNARD

Entrepreneurship and Knowledge Management: Knowledge Requirements, Utility, Creation, and Competency

The study examines knowledge management in the context of entrepreneurship: in particular, how entrepreneurs utilize and create knowledge, and build on knowledge as a core competency. Scientific research (SR) as knowledge type, and its relevance to the entrepreneur, are also investigated. With regards to knowledge creation, entrepreneurs excel at speed, originality and relevance, creativity, and business acumen. They have well-developed knowledge bases, and synthesize a lot of knowledge. Entrepreneurs both push and pull knowledge. The entrepreneur may source and acquire knowledge to advance and close the knowledge gaps of an identified opportunity, or may peruse knowledge in search of opportunity. The study elaborates on the relationship between knowledge and innovation, as well as the relationship between knowledge, creativity, and innovation. Entrepreneurs extensively consume scientific research, particularly to expand their knowledge bases. Similar to knowledge, entrepreneurs both...

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Arran BROWN Brian BARNARD

Entrepreneurship, Innovation and Strategic Foresight: How Entrepreneurs Engage the Future as Opportunity

This study investigates how entrepreneurs and innovators engage the future, and it reflects on how strategic foresight (also called futures studies) can contribute to innovation and entrepreneurship. The literature emphasizes the importance of planning for the future, but not much attention has been given to how entrepreneurs view, forecast and incorporate the future, and how this influences their innovation and creativity. The study found that entrepreneurs are disconnected from the future, and do not take it seriously. The future is mostly left to unfold, and it appears as a surprise. Entrepreneurs use simple methods to engage the future, and their understanding of it is vague. There is a lack of leadership and coordination around the future, and very little intervention around the future. Entrepreneurs recognize a general connection between the future and innovation, but they fail to see the relationship between innovation and futures studies. Futures studies are central to...

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Tina PHIRI Brian BARNARD

Entrepreneurship and Innovation: The Antecedents of Opportunity

The study examines the antecedents of opportunity in greater detail. A literature review highlights 9 antecedents of opportunity, and it was further investigated how these factors impact opportunity recognition. Some of the leading antecedents of opportunity were: solving problems, goals and aspirations, artistic creativity, adoption and networking. None of the antecedents by themselves are sufficient for innovation, as each has a caveat that may also hinder innovation. Also, it is evident that a number of the antecedents may offer unique solutions and benefits, including the acceleration of the identification of ideas and opportunities. In certain contexts, one antecedent may be more applicable or beneficial than another. Each antecedent potentially offers and allows expert areas of innovation, with innovators becoming very experienced in a particular antecedent as an area of innovation. Consequently, the innovator may continually gravitate towards a certain antecedent. A number of...

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Brian BARNARD Derrick HERBST

Innovation and Entrepreneurship: The Necessary Conditions of Value Creation

The necessary conditions of value creation are considered from the vantage point of innovation and entrepreneurship. Both demand side (basic needs, customer perceived value, and customer satisfaction) and supply side (science, technology, and knowledge) considerations of value creation are examined. The relationships between value creation and basic needs, customer perceived value, and knowledge are further examined. Although a number of factors are identified that impact value, only four are seen as primary factors of value: price, benefit, satisfaction, and experience. The innovator and entrepreneur can create value, and quantify the uniqueness of their value offerings, through these four primary factors. The study concludes that, on the demand side, basic needs may be an indirect driver of value creation, and customer perceived value as concept may be useful in the context of value creation. At the same time, it is believed that the four factors – price, benefit, satisfaction, and...

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