Ika Nurul QAMARI Nandrianina Louis Pierre RAKOTOARIZAKA NURYAKIN

Impact of Electronic Human Resource Management toward Excellent Service – A Bibliometric Review

This article examines the literature on the "Impact of Electronic Human Resource Management" published in several prestigious research journals during the last nine years. This paper seeks to guide further studies in this field, provide an overview of previous research, and identify pertinent research gaps in the subfield of electronic human resource management. The researcher used Scopus data to analyze the research publications for the chosen topic. The papers selected for this article were published within the last nine years (2013–2021). Most of the research papers analyzed found that organizations can benefit from the significance of e-HRM in aspects of cost efficiency and time-efficient both for organizational and individual levels. Furthermore, this technology facilitates corporate operations and improves information and organizational performance. The purpose of this paper is to encourage the cornerstone for future research in this field. Most of those papers addressed the limitations and the possibilities for further investigation, and this paper identifies a few of the most significant research gaps. As a result of the Covid-19 epidemic, the world has been forced to become digitized, and it is far more critical to keep track of advancements in the science of "e-HRM."
JEL Classification M10, M15, O33
Full Article

1. Introduction

Over the past decades, human resource management has unfolded from traditional H.R. to a more technology-based occupation called electronic human resource management (e-HRM). Technology advancement, technological innovation, and the Internet of Things have altered the H.R. functions and practices into digitalized processes that operational turn into automated and data-driven. In the 1990s, a considerable change had been made since the introduction of web-based HRM systems in its activities (Al-Harazneh and Sila, 2021) along with the announcement of the World Wide Web in 1991 to 21st century’s most significant innovation 5G network that facilitates information exchange within a split second (Martínez-Morán, Urgoiti, and Diez, 2021). The significant shift from human intervention to automated digital interference has the desired effect of assisting firms in performing better in their fundamental work responsibilities. Digital transformation is among the sectors where businesses excel, and automation has become necessary in how a business should run, resulting in a favorable impact on the whole business function (Hairiyadi and Ahsyar, 2019). E-HRM implementation provides time and cost efficiencies for the organization. Balakrishnan and Duraipandian (2020) confirmed this statement in their study on the automation of H.R. practices using e-HRM in I.T. organizations. Employees’ perception and degree of acceptance of e-HRM in an organization heavily rely on the total costs of getting e-HRM. Investment and added value are also expected from the general exercise of having an e-HRM idea into action. Furthermore, applying this technology also provides convenience in business processes and increases the flow of information and organizational performance.

However, suppose an organization intends to provide employees with continuous training and development. In that case, this saves time, allows employees to do the right thing the first time, and boosts their satisfaction and productivity, efficiency, and, finally, their devotion to system improvement (Manivannan and Valliammal, 2019). In addition, e-HRM is a high-tech and never-ending process that keep developing, executing, and integrating organizational and HRM plans, policies, and practices using web-based technologies resulting in cost savings, increased efficiency, and more flexible services (Oswal and Narayanappa, 2015). Digitalization creates a positive image for attracting talent, ensures employee loyalty, increases employee and department autonomy, and speeds up new people management tasks. Digitalization simply refers to the introduction of further information and communication technology tools. Organizations will alter the workers and the workplace; as a result, they will also modify the work environment. For instance, working remotely requires firms to create new environments, responsibilities, and other factors (Tataru, 2019). This procedure also includes talent management (Martínez-Morán et al. 2021). The possibility of digital transformation necessitates extensive system changes and new working formulas. This procedure includes talent management as well. The possibility of digital transformation necessitates extensive system changes and new working formulas.

2. Literature Review

This bibliometric literature review has examined scholarly publications like reviews and research papers. The papers under consideration were published between 2013 and 2021. In the domain of e-HRM, even nine years is a significant amount of time. The studies included in this literature review were published in reputable peer-reviewed journals. These papers came from the nations depicted in the diagram below:


Figure 1. The country of origin of the papers that were chosen for the literature review

Source: Scopus using Tableau Public

This figure is crucial since it shows that all continents are covered and that electronic human resource management’s impact is being studied worldwide. Digitization of human resources is a worldwide phenomenon that will continue to grow. All of the literature researched and cited in this paper is on "electronic, human resource management and its impact." The most referenced study (116 times) was discussed by reviewing the research on e-HRM to give scholars and practitioners evidence-based recommendations on the relationship between e-HRM and strategic HRM (Marler and Fisher, 2013). The evolution of technology has transformed the way firms operate, especially for senior managers and H.R. personnel. It has aided in the automation of their burdensome paperwork. It has been the main concern for digital human resource management researchers on adopting e-HRM systems. A study in the Indian manufacturing industry analyzed the intention behind the company’s adoption of e-HRM and found that H.R. professionals have expressed a favorable attitude toward implementing new technologies. The importance of accomplishing this will be determined by the organization’s decision to implement a technology that would be applicable in the long run and perceived by respondents in terms of usefulness, the convenience of use, and certain anticipated benefits (Giri, Paul, and Chatterjee, 2019). Transitioning traditional HRM into e-HRM activities has not been easy for organizations. Rathee and Bhuntel (2021), in their study on employees’ perception on the use of I.T. in e-HRM with a sample of 320 respondents, have discovered the impact of e-HRM system implementation in the I.T. industry. The researchers have found eight factors that probably affect the implementation of e-HRM in I.T. in India. The results divulged that among the eight factors, the use of technology had the highest impact factor. Employees of I.T. organizations find e-hrm helpful because it is an efficient technology. It simplifies and facilitates their work (Rathee and Bhuntel, 2021). The same authors mentioned that these factors were vital for the success of e-HRM implementation in the I.T. industry but cannot be generalized to other industries.

 Moreover, a study by Zareena (2018) focused on adopting e-HRM in different industries, and the scope clarified the convenience and benefits of adopting the e-HRM systems. The data was gathered from several senior H.R. managers in multinational companies and found that e-HRM is highly recommended. Previous literature reviews have analyzed multiple factors that can impact e-HRM adoption and implementation in different industries (Giri et al., 2019; Rathee and Bhuntel, 2021; Zareena, 2018); among them, the use of technology and comfort and convenient usage as the most dominant factor in e-HRM adoption. However, Subhashree and Vasantha (2020) have observed other factors influencing e-HRM usage in organizations. Apart from the results of previous researchers’ ideas concerning the factors influencing e-HRM mentioned above, the authors discovered that one of the critical determinants for an organization’s proclivity to adopt e-HRM is its I.T. infrastructure and employee I.T. expertise. The attitude toward e-HRM adoption in an organization will be higher with the help of top management support to invest in high I.T. infrastructure and train employees to respond with the organization’s I.T. assets. Employee attitudes regarding e-HRM play a significant role in its implementation. The convenience of registration and communication is the primary reason for e-HRM adoption. These findings suggest that businesses can improve their existing HRM procedures by incorporating new technologies and information. This research focuses on the factors influencing e-HRM deployment and uptake in manufacturing SMEs in Pakistan (Waheed, Xiaoming, Salma, Ahmad, and Tian-Tian (2020). An empirical study was conducted in India concerning implementing e-HRM in commercial banks. The researchers collected data from 215 respondents from private and public banks in Kanniyakumari. E-HRM is critical to analyze in the bank industry because banks are having issues and difficulties recruiting employees, talent management, compensation, and performance appraisal. Therefore, H.R. managers ought to solve these problems by implementing e-HRM. The findings revealed that public banks are implementing e-HRM at a slow rate, resulting in low organizational engagement among their employees compared to private sector banks. (Roy and Jegan, 2019). Similar results were conducted on the elements that influence the practices of e-HRM in government organizations in Bangladesh, and researchers have found that in emerging economies, public sector organizations are implementing e-HRM at a moderate pace (Rahman and Mordi, 2018). Indeed, if the e-HRM system succeeds, the greater the rewards to the company. The goal is to boost business profit by improving efficiency and lowering waste. Making the e-HRM system easier to use, the e-HRM function systems should be well-defined, and encouraging all employees to use the e-HRM system to add value to the company are some of the previous literature review’s recommendations for increasing the use of electronic, human resource management (e-HRM). This means that the goals and benefits of using e-HRM practices should be communicated to all employees in a company (Manivannan and Valliammal, 2019). Technological advancements aided the development and widespread usage of computer-based HRIS.

The H.R. department and businesses can be more productive with the help of HRIS. Practitioners and researchers have been interested in measuring I.T. benefits for decades. Still, extensive research that defines HRIS execution as a system, information, and data quality was motivated by the lack of HRIS implementation in higher education and situation normality of trust. The relationship between human resource information system (HRIS) implementation and its impact on higher education were analyzed in Malaysia. The findings reveal that user happiness is influenced by system factors, such as information quality and institution-based confidence, which is influenced by situational normality and structural certainty. User satisfaction and situational normality predict users’ perceptions of HRIS advantages (Ashkan Davarpanah, 2020). Another study was conducted at Tunisian companies on the impact of HRIS on individual innovation capability through the mediating role of employee affective commitment. Results concluded that employing various HRIS applications and features encourages H.R. employees to increase their innovative capacity. Employee dedication, they discovered, permits them to expand and increase their creativity and happiness. Indeed, employees’ commitment pushes them to thrive, provide new innovative ideas, and use their unique knowledge for the company’s benefit (Ben Moussa and El Arbi, 2020). It can be inferred that using e-HRM boosts a better level of employee organizational commitment. Moreover, the effect of HRIS application on employee satisfaction and turnover was tested, and results revealed that from a positive point of view, the use of HRIS in the work office is delightful as it brings many benefits to employees, such as increased job satisfaction and can reduce turnover rates at work. However, looking on its negative side, HRIS can be seen by H.R. workers as irritating and threatening, leading to lower employee satisfaction and increased turnover intentions (Shahreki, Ganesan, Raman, Chin, and Chin, 2019). Likewise, the impact of e-HRM offerings on user satisfaction in the hotel industry was investigated in India. The findings showed that green HRM practices such as green performance appraisal, green employee relations, training and development, and reward had heavily affected employee satisfaction in the hotel (Mohanty, 2020). An organization should have proper management and the ability to improve human resource quality. Usually, the quality of H.R. services can be the main factor that employees benefit from because it adds value to their lives. The expectation of enhancing HRM services essence through e-HRM is known as H.R. services quality.

This can potentially increase the H.R. services traits supplied to employees, and organizations’ performance may improve as a result (Aryee, Walumbwa, Seidu, and Otaye, 2016). Research on using all e-HRM practices by managers in Indonesia has discovered that well-implemented e-HRM can improve employee performance in administration activities (Nurlina, Sitomurang, Akob, Quilim, and Arfah, 2020). Although corporate sustainability is a global trend, Jordan investigated the impact of e-HRM on corporate sustainability in SMEs. The findings revealed that, while corporate sustainability could not be fully implemented in Jordanian companies, most H.R. staffs were comfortable and enticing corporates to use e-HRM because of its efficiency and effectiveness in carrying out their business (Alkhodary, 2021). Regarding the efficiency of e-human resource management, a study examined the impact of e-HRM application on the efficiency of HRM systems with a sample of 282 respondents from two different telecommunication companies. Findings were based on the three framework theories: social exchange theory, the unified theory of acceptance and use of technology, and the leader-member exchange theory. Behavioral intention to utilize an e-HRM system was highly influenced by performance expectancy but not effort expectancy. Favorable conditions strongly impacted the use of an e-HRM system.

Top management support and line managers’ HRM roles had a meaningful impact on behavioral intention to use e-HRM and actual use of e-HRM; however, H.R. professionals harmed e-HRM usage. Lastly, the effectiveness of the HRM system was significantly influenced by the actual use of e-HRM (Al-Harazneh and Sila, 2021). Operational, relational, and transformational E-HRM are the three significant types of e-HRM (Martini et al., 2021). Following the concept of Lepak and Snell (1998), they suggested that there were three levels of e-HRM, namely operational e-HRM, which is one of the most fundamental aspects of H.R. that assists the H.R. activities as payroll administration and personnel data management. The second most complex type of e-hrm is relational e-HRM; it covers the fundamentals of human resources and focuses on H.R. tools that support business processes such as recruitment and selection, learning and development, performance management, rewards, and recognition, and so on. There seems to be an alternative to running the recruitment process through a web-based application or a manual system. The third e-HRM function category is transformational e-HRM, which goes into greater detail about change management, organizational change, and transformation. It is imperative to generate a transitioning workforce using an appropriate set of web-based devices that enable the employee to develop strategic choices.

3. Methodology of Bibliometric Review

The Scopus database was used to look for relevant research publications to construct this bibliometric review. "Scopus" is the world’s most excellent peer-reviewed academic database articles, abstracts, and citations. It includes scientific journals, book reviews, conference proceedings, and many other publications. "Electronic Human Resource Management" or "e-HRM" was the search phrase utilized. Electronic human resource management has been a well-known field of study for at least four decades. There were publications from around the world, including India and the U.K. Furthermore, a search within a search was conducted using "Digital H.R." Only journals relating to business, accounting, and management were selected afterward. Then only publications about business, accounting, and management were selected. Following that, it displayed 307 relevant papers. The author filtered and improved the findings, resulting in a total of 103 relevant papers, 35 chosen for a complete literature assessment. The timeline for publishing is from 2013 to 2021. The Scopus search that was performed to find and shortlist research publications for this literature review was looking for publications in the topic areas of "business management" and "electronic human resource and digital H.R. keywords.

Scopus search string:

( TITLE-ABS-KEY ( "electronic human resource management" ) OR TITLE-ABS-KEY ( "e-hrm" ) OR TITLE-ABS-KEY ( "digital hr" ) ) AND ( LIMIT-TO ( PUBYEAR , 2021 ) OR LIMIT-TO ( PUBYEAR , 2020 ) OR LIMIT-TO ( PUBYEAR , 2019 ) OR LIMIT-TO ( PUBYEAR , 2018 ) OR LIMIT-TO ( PUBYEAR , 2017 ) OR LIMIT-TO ( PUBYEAR , 2016 ) OR LIMIT-TO ( PUBYEAR , 2015 ) OR LIMIT-TO ( PUBYEAR , 2014 ) OR LIMIT-TO ( PUBYEAR , 2013 ) ) AND ( LIMIT-TO ( DOCTYPE , "ar" ) OR LIMIT-TO ( DOCTYPE , "cp" ) OR LIMIT-TO ( DOCTYPE , "re" ) ) AND ( LIMIT-TO ( SUBJAREA , "BUSI" ) ) AND ( LIMIT-TO ( LANGUAGE , "English" ) ) AND ( LIMIT-TO ( SRCTYPE , "j" ) )

4. Examining the Bibliometrics of the Documents Obtained

Figure 2 shows that research papers in "Electronic human resource management" and "Digital H.R." have increased quickly in the last five years. This graph demonstrates that several journals have been published regularly since 2017, significantly increasing through 2021. This graph indicates that researchers are becoming increasingly interested in this field of study. Because of the COVID-19 pandemic, where social distance was required and e-HRM received a lift, the graph visibly increased in 2021


Figure 2. Scopus documents published by year

Source: Scopus

The following pie chart shows that the business and management departments contribute the most to research papers. It indicates that the rapid rise of digital H.R. influences firms. The transformation of human resource management into digital human resource management is undoubtedly on the rise, as evidenced by the graph in figure 3.


Figure 3. Documents published on Scopus by subject

Source: Scopus

The bar chart below shows that India and the U.K. contribute the most to research papers, indicating that these countries are the top electronic human resource management researchers. India is also one of the fastest expanding markets, showing its interest in digital H.R. human research topics, as illustrated in figure 4.

Figure 4. Documents published on Scopus by country/territory

 Source: Scopus

The search revealed evidence of 307 research papers. Keyword co-occurrences or the minimum number of occurrences of a keyword (minimum 2) in these publications are represented in figure 5. The figure shows how information technology, digitalization of human resource management, and e-hrm effectiveness are linked to electronic human resource management.


Figure 5. Screenshot of keyword co-occurrences in VosViewer (Minimum 2)

The author co-authorship or a minimum number of documents of an author (minimum 1) in these articles are outlined in figure 6. The graph highlighted that research is being carried out independently worldwide, and it may be determined that the studies are focused on distinct geographical areas. In contrast, co-authorship among nations or the minimum number of documents of a country (minimum 1) in these articles is presented in figure 7. It reported that very few authors are now co-authoring papers together.


Figure.6 Screenshot of author co-authorship in VosViewer (Minimum 1)


Figure 7. Co-authorship across countries as seen in the VosViewer (Minimum 1)

5. Discussion

Following the review process, the authors discovered that Scopus search results provided considerable coverage for the subject matter we are interested in researching. As per the published subject area, the business and management department (56.9 percent) and social science (10.5 percent) made the most significant contribution to research papers, while other subject areas such as engineering, economics, psychology, decision, and computer sciences make up the remaining subject areas. It can be concluded from the growth index that electronic human resource management has grown steadily over the last nine years. The countries that contribute the most to scientific articles are India and the United Kingdom. This demonstrates that these countries have the most advanced electronic human resource management and researchers. India is also one of the fastest-growing markets, demonstrating a keen interest in digital human resource management. While the United Kingdom is one of the first countries in western Europe to adopt e-HRM technologies. The growth pattern in the two highest department percentage main groups in Fig. 3 is very similar, with peaks in 2013 and continuing until 2021. It implies that some events occurred before the two prominent peaks; analyzing this data could aid in identifying some of the most indicative and innovative works in this interdisciplinary subject. The results of the author co-occurrences diagram show that e-hrm has recently been the primary focus of researchers, academicians, and authors in general. Figure 5 depicts the relationship between information technology, digitalization/digitization of human resource management, and the effectiveness of e-hrm. The author’s minimum number of documents demonstrated that research was conducted separately worldwide. The studies may be concentrated in specific regions. Co-authorship among nations or in these articles, on the other hand, reported that very few authors are now co-authoring papers together.

6. Conclusion and Future Research

This research revealed unique and crucial insights into H.R. professionals’ responsibilities in developing intentions and behavior to use e-HRM, bringing attention to HRM effectiveness in MNCs across different industries. Furthermore, the implementation of e-HRM and its effects on H.R. services aspects revealed to be beneficial and valuable for both organizational and individual levels. As HRM becomes more digitalized, the necessity for associated research activities grows. Every decade, the e-HRM world advances, and something new emerges.

Information systems used in human resource management favor the services that will be delivered to users. Thereby, e-HRM can be noticed as a different method of implementing a human resources management strategy. Most of the published papers were conducted in the exact geographical location. Thus, analyzing the impact of e-HRM procedures in foreign firms and comparing the results will be worthwhile. It can be assumed that managers should offer the strategic and cultural urge for such system usage push. This is also more significant for manufacturing companies than for I.T. companies.

The association between e-HRM and strategic interest has not been enough to be considered a solid assumption. Future study design should measure strategic outcomes such as improved knowledge management, more productive human capital, improved organizational performance, and so on, where possible (Marler and Fisher, 2013). Control variables and environmental characteristics should be considered in empirical studies (Marler and Parry, 2016). Future research should look into the relationship between organizational performance and e-HRM functions and the intervening variable of workforce adaptability (Alkasasbeh, Halim, Abi, Masa and Omar,2016; Qamari and Dewayani, 2019). In the context of MNC implementation of e-HRM, there should be a study into technological isomorphism discovered in the information system literature (Heikkilä, 2013). The literature on E-HRM in MNCs often lacks, so all possible themes should be explored further. Researchers advocate adopting the overall I.S. framework as a guideline for identifying subjects to create some form of roadmap for future study (Van Geffen, Ruël, and Bondarouk, 2013). The impact of e-HRM on internal staffing was addressed. Future research may focus on examining the effect of unique institutional and organizational circumstances on internal staffing practices and e-HRM regimes, a perspective that has received little attention in the literature yet (Rogiers, Viaene, and Leysen, 2020).

Transformational e-HRM approaches could enhance employee knowledge sharing. Numerous e-HRM system combinations can be used to meet the various activities that the H.R. department wants to undertake within the company (Bissola and Imperatori, 2013). It would be fascinating to learn what variables encourage firms in Indonesia to use e-HRM and what factors affect organizations resistant to e-HRM advances and thus hesitant to implement e-HRM (Bondarouk, Schilling, and Ruel, 2016). Future studies could focus more on strategic goals and objectives as e-HRM outcomes remain a topic of interest for researchers (Panos and Bellou, 2016). E-HRM practices can influence employees’ relationships with H.R. departments. There are existing tools for e-HRM that can help the H.R. department with its obligations and other responsibilities (Bissola and Imperatori, 2014). Researchers suggest that there should be more new theories addressing issues on this generic topic that may yield results is required in the future (Burbach and Royle, 2013; Obeidat, 2016; Bondarouk et al., 2017).

6.1. Limitations of the Study

Like every other line of research, this study has some limitations that can also be utilized as a starting point for more investigation. First, the author has reviewed previous studies using a theoretical approach, and no primary data were gathered as it is a bibliometric review. Second, in filtering documents using a scope database, approximately 307 papers were considered relevant to the aim of this study. Thus, it has affected the overall content of this study for full literature assessment as only 35 journal articles were reviewed to analyze the influence of e-HRM on excellent service.


Author Contributions: Rakotoarizaka Nandrianina Louis Pierre: Conceptualization, Methodology, Software. Nuryakin: Data curation, Writing- Original draft preparation. Ika Nurul Qamari: Supervision, Validation, Writing- Reviewing and Editing.

Acknowledgments: The author would like to give special appreciation to his supervisors Dr. Ika Nurul and Pak Nuryakin for their assistance, guidance, and recommendations in writing this bibliometric analysis.

Funding: This research was funded by the Universitas Muhammadiyah Yogyakarta.

Conflicts of Interest: The authors state that they have no conflicts of interest.

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© 2022 The Authors. Published by Sprint Investify. ISSN 2359-7712. This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. Creative Commons License
Corresponding Author
Nandrianina Louis Pierre Rakotoarizaka, Postgraduate Program, Universitas Muhammadiyah Yogyakarta, Yogyakarta, Indonesia
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Ika Nurul QAMARI
Universitas Muhammadiyah Yogyakarta, Indonesia

Nandrianina Louis Pierre RAKOTOARIZAKA
Universitas Muhammadiyah Yogyakarta, Indonesia

Universitas Muhammadiyah Yogyakarta, Indonesia