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Volume 1 Issue 1
Eric VAN ZYL Teneille VENTER Juan-Pierré BRUWER

The Catalysed Use of Fourth Industrial Revolution Interventions in South African Higher Education Institutions, due to COVID-19, and its Influence on Efficacy

COVID-19 has brought about significant change in a global dispensation. One of these changes is the catalysed use of fourth industrial revolution interventions 4IRI. In South Africa, among the industries that have been influenced by the catalysed use of 4IRI is that of the Higher Education industry. Apart from the fact that South African Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) were restructured during the mid-2000s (e.g. Technikons transforming to Universities of Technology), most curricula and/or teaching practices are still outdated; do not accommodate for the development of 21st-century skills. To this end, this study was conducted to theoretically investigate whether the catalysed use of 4IRI, as brought on by COVID-19, influenced the efficacy of South African HEIs. This study was exploratory in nature and constituted online desktop research. Stemming from the research conducted, it appears that the catalysed use of 4IRI in South African HEIs may not have any influence on its...

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Investigating Forms of Capital as Alternative Loan Assessment for E-Entrepreneurs

Micro and small enterprise development are crucial to support a country’s economy, and microfinance is vital to support its growth. Currently, the microfinance industry is faced with two main challenges: to reduce credit risk and to avoid losing sight of its social purpose. The study argues that this is a matter of vicious circle that can be broken using a practical credit application evaluation. The research purpose is to investigate an alternative method for credit application assessment using one of classic sociological theory, the three forms of capital, consisting of economic capital, social capital, and cultural capital. A survey of 100 e-entrepreneurs operating in e-commerce revealed that only two of the three capitals affect the credit potential variable. The uniqueness of the study is in the utilization of alternative behavioral data, including social media activity, informal training, and religiosity to measure the credit potential of a respondent. The study’s results...

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Gavin Ashley CHAPMAN

Anticipating the Impact of Disruptive Technologies on SMEs in Kwazulu-Natal: A Case Study

This article investigates a range of disruptive technologies which have been identified as being disruptive or potentially disruptive to the current SME business models. By not being cognizant of the possible effect that these modern technologies may have on a variety of business sectors, SMEs run the risk of either losing business opportunities or not being able to participate in new business ventures in future so the competitive edge is lost. The impact of disruptive technologies is rapidly gaining momentum on a world-wide scale. Three complimentary disruptive technologies, associated with the 4th Industrial Revolution (4IR) have been selected for this study viz. Big Data, Internet of Things (IoT), and Artificial Intelligence (AI). A single case study following the qualitative method was considered suitable to explore, probe and gain a clear understanding from a SME perspective, whether these three disruptive technologies have the potential to influence the business either...

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Insiwijati PRASETYANINGSIH Jessycka Veronika FURE

Effect of Good Corporate Governance on Wealth Added Index for Companies from Indonesia Stock Exchange

The purpose of this study is to determine the effect of Good Corporate Governance (GCG) on the Wealth Added Index (WAI) which is known as a wealth creator. Good Corporate Governance is measured by the number of directors, number of commissioners, number of audit committees, and managerial ownership of the Company's WAI. GCG data was obtained from the Indonesia Stock Exchange (IDX) publication for public companies in 2017 - 2019, while WAI represented survey data from SWA magazine for 4 consecutive years. The analysis used in this study was based on a multiple regression. From the results of this study, it was found that the GCG had an effect on WAI related to the number of directors, the number of audit committees, the share ownership ratio and the number of commissioners had a significant effect as a whole. Partially, the number of directors, the number of audit committees, and the number of managerial ownership have a significant effect, but the relationship considering the number...

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Annelie THOR Patrick SIEGFRIED

Reasons and Potential Solution Approaches for the Shortage of Nursing Staff in German Hospitals

The aim of this scientific paper was to find out the reasons for the shortage of nursing staff in German hospitals and to provide potential solution approaches for this shortage. Over the last years, the shortage of nursing staff has become a more and more important topic in the news: Not only due to the increasing amount of missing nurses, but also due to the ageing population in Germany, which leads to an increasing amount of patients in German hospitals. To reach this aim two surveys were done, of which one was for nursing staff only and the other one was for people from all occupational groups with the intention of creating comparative values. The surveys were done from March to April 2019 and were analysed afterwards. After a detailed analysis of the survey results, it can be summarized that the reasons for the shortage of nursing staff in German hospitals are very diverse: Starting with a weak salary, improvable working conditions – for example the shift work and the high amount...

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Martha HARUNAVAMWE Rosebud Bekithemba MNQAYI

Exploring the Effect of Continuous Professional Development (CPD) Programs on Employee Performance at Company A in Empangeni, KwaZulu-Natal

Emergency Management Services (EMS) personnel, particularly paramedics, should have crucial clinical decision-making abilities, by developing field or differential diagnoses and impressions. This enables them to make critical decisions pertaining to patient management plans and care. Paramedics among other healthcare professionals are concerned with declining employee performance. There is therefore a need for performance improvement that is dependent on how employees realize continuous professional development (CPD) activities. This study focused on revealing the effect of CPD programs on employee performance at Company A in KwaZulu-Natal. A sample of 10 participants was drawn from the population of Emergency Care Providers working at Company A. A qualitative research methodology was adopted with the employment of purposive non-probability sampling and semi-structured interviews. The study concluded that CPD programs have a very positive effect on the performance of employees, as...

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Relationship between Social Media, Organizational Support, Subjective Norms and Perceived Behavioral Control to Form Entrepreneurial Intention

Entrepreneurship is the key to innovation and economic growth, both for developed industrial countries and developing countries. Currently, in Indonesia there is growing awareness of the importance of the role of entrepreneurship in national development. On the other hand, advances in information technology, especially the internet, have made it possible for many people to connect to virtual communities in a network without borders. The main purpose of this research is to test research a model that forms Entrepreneurial Intention. Based on the survey method and purposive random sampling as a sampling technique, a research model testing using structural equation modelling proves that Social Media Usage has a positive and significant effect on Subjective Norms, but has no effect on Entrepreneurial Intention; while the Organizational Support has a positive and significant effect on Subjective Norms and Perceived Behavioral Control. Then, Subjective Norm and Perceived Behavioral Control...

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Juan-Pierré BRUWER

Fortifying South African Small Medium and Micro Enterprise Sustainability through a Proposed Internal Control Framework: The Sustenance Framework

During the mid-1990s the South African government formally recognised Small, Medium and Micro Enterprises (SMMEs) operating in the country, for the first time, through the publication of the National Small Business Act No. 102 of 1996. Through this legislation, South African SMMEs were tasked to assist with the attainment of three core socio-economic objectives, namely the reduction of unemployment, the mitigation of poverty and the equal distribution of wealth. After more than two decades it appears that South African SMMEs are not achieving the foregoing three socio-economic objectives; simultaneously being cited as having among the worst failure rates in the world. Prior research found that this dispensation is largely attributable to the non-management of economic factors which, in turn, led to the realisation of risks. To assist with the management of economic factors and related risks, a sound system of internal control should be used. Unfortunately, despite the existence of...

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Corporate Strategy, Networking and Firm Performance in Africa

Modern global business environment has experienced a paradigm shift from Multi-polarity to Multilateralism, hence forcing companies in Africa to pay more attention on emerging networks in an endeavor to architect strategies for improved performance. These changes include implementation of enterprise strategies and inter-organization alliances and networks, which allows for healthy competition and enterprise performance in both private and public ventures. However, there exists a marked lack of appreciation of the vital linkages of corporate strategy, networking and corporate performance. This article surveys literature on major efforts undertaken by organizations and nations to establish a relevant conceptual framework and methodology in a detailed view point. A synopsis of related literature and past studies in this area have linked networking with performance but with scantly researched proof on the connections between strategy, partnerships and triumph in organizational performance...

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The Effect of Regulation and Collaboration on Financial Literacy and Financial Technology Adoption

The purpose of the study is to determine the effect of regulation, collaboration, and financial literacy on the adoption of financial technology for Small and Medium Enterprises. This research was conducted with a causal design to analyze the relationship between regulatory variables, collaboration, financial literacy, and adoption of financial technology through hypothesis testing. Research sample of 95 small and medium-sized businesses in East Java, Indonesia. The sampling method uses purposive sampling with the following criteria: (1) Having a minimum of 5 employees and a maximum of 99 employees; (2) Businesses that run using financial technology applications, namely OVO, GoPay, DANA, or LINK; (3) Businesses are carried out in the East Java region. This research uses Partial Least Square (PLS) analysis technique. Results show that regulation has a significant effect on financial literacy. Collaboration has a significant effect on financial literacy. Financial literacy has no...

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The Influence of Competence Management on Human Resources Policies: Tunisian Context

This research aimed to study the influence of competence management on human resources policies, i.e., recruitment, assessment, training, remuneration, and career management. To this end, an empirical study was conducted via a questionnaire among 124 Tunisian companies. We tested the research hypotheses through linear regression analysis. The results confirm that competence management has a positive influence on human resources policies. The present work provides managers with a useful measurement instrument that can be used in examining human resource policies in their companies to upgrade and improve their employees’ competencies.

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Ashwin PETERSEN Juan-Pierré BRUWER Roger MASON

Source Document Usage and the Financial Sustainability of South African Small, Medium and Micro Retailers

In South Africa, small, medium and micro enterprises (SMMEs) add significant socio-economic value to the national economy and are regarded as the driving force for economic growth. Prior research shows that these business entities’ sustainability leaves much to be desired as approximately 80% of South African SMMEs fail after being in operation for only three years; believed to be caused mostly by unmanaged economic factors. Although unmanaged economic factors may culminate in risks which adversely affect the sustainability of South African SMMEs, internal control activities can be used to mitigate the probability and potential impact of such risks. One of the most cost-effective internal control activities is that of document usage and design (e.g. source documents and internal documents). For this study, the primary objective was to determine the influence of source document usage, as an internal control measure, on the sustainability of South African small, medium and micro retail...

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Olive Kamene Ndeveni TINDIKA Kenneth Lawrence WANJAU George Mbugua KARIUKI Joseph MUCHIRI

Moderating Role of Environmental Dynamism on the Relationship between Opportunity Evaluation and Growth of NGOs in Kenya

This study explored the moderating role of Environmental Dynamism (ED) on the relationship between opportunity evaluation and growth of agro-based Non-Governmental Organisations (NGOs) in Kenya. These NGOs play a critical role which includes poverty reduction, through employment creation and food security and therefore their growth is fundamental in continuing to serve the society. Agro-based NGOs in Kenya, operating in dynamic business environments face greater levels of unpredictability and turbulence than those in more stable business environments. The need to link opportunity evaluation and growth is very important for organisations to attain growth. To better understand this relationship, this paper employed a mixed method approach guided by cross-sectional research design. Quantitative and qualitative techniques were employed to analyse the data from 124 agro-based NGOs in Kenya using SPSS version 21 and AMOS graphic analytical software. Structural Equation Model (SEM) was used...

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The Factors of Delegation Success: Accountability, Compliance and Work Quality

Delegation is an enabler in organisations, yet managers still struggle with how to use it effectively to get maximum value. There are many definitions of delegation and what it tries to achieve; at the heart of it, delegation is about giving power and authority to work on assigned tasks. It deals with how power should be handed over for delegated tasks to be completed successfully. Since there are no guarantees that delegated tasks will be delivered as expected and on time, there is a need to understand the success factors of delegation. The research is about the success factors of delegation by looking at accountability, quality and compliance. The research goes further and looks at the foundational elements of delegation to make it work which include competencies, skills, attitude an aptitude. It analyses the impact of leadership in delegation by assessing the leadership style(s) that support delegation. Alignment is key in delegation and the research looks at the relationship...

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Leadership Commitment in Transparency Management of Public Information in Pemalang District, Indonesia

The leader’s commitment in realizing transparency of public information is one of the key parts of good governance. The Indonesian Government issued ACT No. 14 in 2008 which was focused on Public Information Disclosure (KIP ACT) to encourage transparency by involving the public in every government policy. The government of Pemalang District, in executing the mandate of KIP ACT, was designated by the Ministry of Communication and Information Technology (Diskominfo) to have an Office of Information Management and Documentation (PPID) responsible of storage, documentation, provision, and service information. This research is using secondary data research to explore these issues. The results showed that the leader’s commitment in transparency of public information in Pemalang District has not been applied effectively because the leader has not exercised his duties and functions by following the Standard Operational Procedure of PPID. More specifically, certain guidelines on the drafting...

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Heru KRISTANTO Radhitya Wisnhu PRATAMA

Effects of the Neuroticism and Agreeableness Personality Types on Entrepreneurial Intention with Subjective Norm as Moderator

This study aims to examine the influence of the personality types of the neuroticism and agreeableness personality on entrepreneurial intentions with subjective norms as a moderator. This research was conducted through a survey method with a sample of 149 participants, residents of Tegalyoso Village, Klaten Utara District, Klaten Regency, Central Java Province, from the Republic of Indonesia. The results of this study indicate that 2 personality types of The Big Five are valid and reliable, namely agreeableness and neuroticism. Both personality types have a significant influence on entrepreneurial intentions. Subjective norms only have an interaction effect on the influence of neuroticism on entrepreneurial intentions.

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Success Factors of Big Data to Achieve Organisational Performance: Qualitative Research

This part of the study continues the literature review conducted, and empirically addresses the research questions raised, in the preceding part of the study: Success factors of big data to achieve organisational performance: Theoretical perspectives. Overall, the focus is on the success factors of big data from an organizational context: how and when big data analytics capabilities yield benefits and improve organisational performance. The research questions that were addressed are: 1. What is the general understanding of big data and its current situation? 2. What capabilities are required in order to be successful at translating big data insights into organisational performance? 3. What are the biggest challenges/ risks to converting big data insights into organisational performance? The methodology was qualitative and exploratory, using semi-structured interviews to have in-depth discussions with big data employees at varying job levels to ascertain the success factors and...

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Success Factors of Big Data to Achieve Organisational Performance: Theoretical Perspectives

Organisations have found an increase in the complexity of their information environments and emerging from this is the concept of “Big Data”, which is considered a breakthrough technological development in both business and academia. Hypothetically, superior big data analytics capability provide organisations with a competitive advantage and is therefore important to develop. This part of the study conducts a comprehensive literature review, with a focus on the success factors of big data from an organizational context: how and when big data analytics capabilities yield benefits and improve organisational performance. It concludes with the following research questions: 1. What is the general understanding of big data and its current situation? 2. What capabilities are required in order to be successful at translating big data insights into organisational performance? 3. What are the biggest challenges/ risks to converting big data insights into organisational performance?

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Juan-Pierré BRUWER Houdini FOURIE Tracy BECK

Considering the Control Legacy-K (CLK) Framework to Serve as a Basis for a Measuring Instrument to Assess the Control Environment of Non-JSE Listed Business Entities

A sound system of internal control is a necessity for business entities; comprising five inter-related elements. The soundness of such a system is influenced by the control environment; often described as the foundation of any system of internal control. According to guidance documents, the definition and the description of the control environment are known however a common approach to assess the control environment of business entities mostly pertain to a quantitative “tick and bash” checklist. Such a yes-no-predicament causes a paradox regarding the axiom that one can only manage what one can measure. By referring to a recently developed internal control framework – the Control Legacy-K (CLK) Framework – the probability exists that the control environment of non-JSE listed business entities can be assessed in both a quantitative and qualitative manner. To this end, the primary objective of this study was to investigate whether the CLK Framework, particularly its first two steps...

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Ioana GUTU

Multinational Companies and the Management of Corporate Diplomacy

This article examines the influence of multinational (MNC) and transnational (TNC) activity over the corporate and business diplomacy practice, according to the industry type, the development extent of each corporation, and the degree of corporate power decentralization. The methodology used in the research papers analyzed included literature review, case studies and qualitative data collection based on interviews with managers from the international corporate environment. Research shows that in practice, there is a confusion in regard with significance of business and corporate diplomacy expressions and their activities extent. This view is also shared by literature, since the association of the terms diplomacy and corporate activities would have more meaning into a philanthropic context, compared to international business. By studying the different managerial actions of multinational and transnational corporations, results show that business diplomacy characterizes with a higher...

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Juan-Pierré BRUWER Judith SMITH Suzaan LE ROUX

Critical Innovation Skills Required of Sole Trader Small, Medium and Micro Enterprise (SMME) Management and Its Influence on Perceived Business Profitability: A South African Perspective

Small, Medium and Micro Enterprises (SMMEs) play a significant role in the stimulation of economies around the globe. In South Africa, though SMMEs add significant socio-economic value to the national economy, approximately 75 per cent of these business entities fail after being in existence for less than four years. Among the economic factors which have been highlighted to adversely affect the sustainability of these business entities is the lack of scarce skills – in particular, that of critical innovation skills. The objective of this study was to ascertain whether critical innovation skills had any statistically significant influence on the perceived profitability of South African SMMEs. Empirical research, exploratory research, and survey research were conducted in this quantitative research study whereby 387 responses were received from South African SMME management who had to adhere to relevant delineation criteria. Based on the results, the critical innovation skills of...

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Leadership of Entrepreneurshipb at the Macro-Level

The study assesses the state of leadership of entrepreneurship at the macro level. It further explores the effectiveness of leadership; the gaps, issues and challenges; and the roles of government and the private sector with regards to entrepreneurship leadership. At its core, the study challenges the assumption that entrepreneurship must be led by government and considers the alternative proposition that entrepreneurship can be led by itself – by an independent body of entrepreneurs. The research finding is that entrepreneurship is not effectively led: 1) Several private and public sector initiatives exist to support entrepreneurs, but remain largely uncoordinated. 2) There are a lack of standards and benchmarking at the macro level, even though entrepreneurs could benefit from accreditation, guidelines, governance and strategy frameworks. 3) Entrepreneurship lacks a unified voice. 4) The stakeholders of entrepreneurship compete, rather than collaborate. Government does not...

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Wirawan Endro Dwi RADIANTO Tommy Christian EFRATA Liliana DEWI

Impact of Family’s Socio-Economic Context on Financial Literacy of Young Entrepreneurs

This study aims to analyze parents’ socio-economic relationships which include parental education, parental occupation, and parental income towards financial literacy. This study uses a sample of young entrepreneurs, students who are active in college and they also run a business. The results showed that the level of financial literacy of young entrepreneurs was at a moderate level. Furthermore, parental education and income have a relationship with financial literacy, whereas parental work does not influence financial literacy.

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The Impact of CSR on the Sustainable Growth of Wholesale and Retail SMEs: The Case of eThekwini Municipal Region

Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) for businesses has been mainly associated with large corporations, Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) were insignificant as they regarded CSR a costly unsustainable business initiative. This scenario undermines the importance and critical role that SMEs play in the economy. Therefore, the study aimed at exploring the impact of CSR on the sustainable growth of Wholesale and Retail SMEs in the eThekwini Municipal region. Results were attained through assessing attitude levels of SMEs towards CSR; investigating the practice of CSR by SMEs; exploring barriers undermining the practice of CSR and exploring SME owners’ values key to the sustainable growth of their businesses. Stakeholder Theoretical framework guided the study; the philosophical paradigm that guided the research was post-positivist, which subsequently recommends a mixed-method approach, i.e. qualitative and quantitative. Data was obtained using self-administered questionnaires and semi...

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Sanjay SINGH Shamila SINGH

Supply Chain Management Practices: Impediments to Service Delivery in the Department of Justice And Constitutional Development

This article articulates the challenges of the supply chain management practices impeding service delivery within the Department of Justice and Constitutional Development (DoJ and CD). The objectives of the study determines the nature and extent to which the SCM policy, procedures and practices are implemented in the DoJ and CD; the challenges in the supply chain management processes impeding service delivery; the impact of the SCM challenges regarding service delivery; and to recommend appropriate SCM practices that can be adopted and implemented in order to enhance the value chain and improve the service delivery constituent accordingly. The research methodology was a quantitative approach and a random sample of 132 questionnaires were distributed and the data was analysed using inferential statistics. The key research findings revealed that the department does not have a fully capacitated and competent team to perform all aspects of SCM that added value to their respective business...

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Jimmy Ellya KURNIAWAN Ersa Lanang SANJAYA Stefani VIRLIA

Entrepreneurial Orientation and Parental Attachment on Emerging Adolescence

The development of entrepreneurial orientation cannot be separated from the role of parenting. While emerging adolescents tend to try to break away from their parents because they want to be closer to their peers. This purpose of this study is discovering differences of entrepreneurial orientation based on parental attachments to father, mother or both. This study used the survey method to 291 emerging adolescents in six major cities on the island of Java, Indonesia. The results showed that early adolescents who were close to both parents had higher entrepreneurial orientation than they who were only close to once parent or not close to both parents. This study also examined the role of parental attachment on each dimension of the entrepreneurial orientation.

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The Heuristics of Entrepreneurs

The study considered and investigated the heuristics of entrepreneurs in the fields of management, strategy, innovation, marketing, sales, HR, and tactics. Overall, a very sophisticated heuristic set was surfaced. None of the areas studied can be described as under-developed. The sophistication of the heuristic set contrasts strongly with previous research on entrepreneurs’ heuristics. Entrepreneurs did not always and initially acknowledge their use of heuristics. It equally implies entrepreneurs may not be actively developing their thinking at all times. Although impressive, comprehensive, and original, the heuristics set may not truly be that distinct from the typical heuristics set of business leaders. Entrepreneurs differ in terms of the level of maturity or comprehensiveness they have reached in terms of the heuristics they consider and use. Entrepreneurs demonstrate natural proficiency and deficiency in terms of heuristics pertaining to areas they excel in and struggle with...

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Social Entrepreneurship: Objectives, Innovation, Implementation and Impact on Entrepreneurship

The study examines social entrepreneurship from the perspective of: objective and philosophy (why social entrepreneurs are social entrepreneurs), opportunity identification (how social entrepreneurs recognise opportunities), implementation (how social entrepreneurship is implemented), and social entrepreneurship’s contribution to entrepreneurship. The dual objective (some profit, social impact), and strong focus on social impact of the social entrepreneur are highlighted. Although certainly possible, opportunities are encountered and experienced, and thus recognised, rather than actively sought. There are both strong similarities and differences between social entrepreneurship and entrepreneurship opportunities. Innovation is as much a component of social entrepreneurship. Also, the proactiveness and innovativeness of social entrepreneurship are important aspects and concepts. Social entrepreneurship can also be radical and disruptive. Implementation of social entrepreneurship entails...

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Entrepreneurship, Innovation and Creativity: The Creative Process of Entrepreneurs and Innovators

The study examines the creative process of entrepreneurs and innovators. It considers how several types of thinking - analytical, analogical, imaginary, intuitive - are involved in creativity and the creative process. It further considers how learning and composite thinking – the integration of the different types of thinking - are incorporated in the creative process. The subsequent analysis covers a number of aspects of creativity and the creative process: 1) attributes, 2) traits, 3) skill, 4) stimulants, 5) process, 6) method and technique, 7) imagination, 8) intuition and the sub-conscious, 9) problem statement, 10) referencing past solutions, 11) the solution space, 12) teams, and 13) factors of success in the market. The prominent role of the intuition and the sub-conscious in creativity is clear. Both the left-brain and right-brain typically contribute to creativity. Perspective formation forms a key component of creativity. There is a semi-formal process to creativity. Both...

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Juan-Pierré BRUWER Mariaan LOMBARD Yolandé SMIT Ankit KATRODIA

The Influence of Excise Taxation Levied on Product Sales on the Financial Sustainability of South African Tobacco-and-Alcohol-Selling Small, Medium and Micro Enterprise

In South Africa, Small, Medium and Micro Enterprises (SMMEs) are often described as the driving forces of the national economy, mainly due to the socio economic value they add. Unfortunately, prior research suggests that South African SMMEs are adversely influenced by an array of economic factors, one of which is taxation. One form of taxation, which influences an array of South African SMMEs, is that of excise taxation; as levied on specific products that are considered detrimental to the social- and/or environmental well-being of South African citizens. When taking into account that excise taxation has increased year-on-year for the past 20 years, the perception was formulated that South African tobacco-and-alcohol-selling SMMEs that are subject to excise taxation, experience weak financial sustainability. As such, this study placed emphasis on the influence excise taxation levied on products sold on the financial sustainability of tobacco-and-alcohol-selling South African SMMEs...

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Bogdan AVRAM

The Importance of Air Connectivity and the Impact on Romanian Airports

In a world where passenger air travel is set to keep a positive growth rate over the years, airports all over the world are striving to increase their connectivity rate by attracting different airline companies, either for point to point connections or hub connectivity to wider the number of destinations reached from the airport to all over the world via a hub. From an airport perspective, creating a strategy to increase the connectivity performance index requires a lot of market analysis, following latest developments of hub connections from all over Europe, as hub connectivity tends to change on a yearly basis. Airport connectivity performance is directly linked to growth, studies (ACI Europe, 2018) showing that a +10% increase in passenger traffic leads to a +0.5% growth in the GDP per capita.

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Examining Relationships between Destination Image, Tourist Motivation, Satisfaction, and Visit Intention in Yogyakarta

Tourism is currently developing rapidly in Indonesia, especially in the Special Regions of Yogyakarta Province. The objective of this study was to examine the theoretical and empirical evidence of the relationships among destination image, motivation, satisfaction, and visit intention. A research model was achieved using the survey method with a questionnaire, and the proposed model examined three hypotheses. The empirical data was collected from young generations (students). A total of 200 questionnaires were returned and the data were analyzed using Structural Equation Modeling (SEM). The results supported the proposed destination loyalty model: destination image and motivation directly influenced satisfaction; and tourist satisfaction had direct and positive impact on tourist’s visit intention.

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Entrepreneurship and Knowledge Management: Knowledge Requirements, Utility, Creation, and Competency

The study examines knowledge management in the context of entrepreneurship: in particular, how entrepreneurs utilize and create knowledge, and build on knowledge as a core competency. Scientific research (SR) as knowledge type, and its relevance to the entrepreneur, are also investigated. With regards to knowledge creation, entrepreneurs excel at speed, originality and relevance, creativity, and business acumen. They have well-developed knowledge bases, and synthesize a lot of knowledge. Entrepreneurs both push and pull knowledge. The entrepreneur may source and acquire knowledge to advance and close the knowledge gaps of an identified opportunity, or may peruse knowledge in search of opportunity. The study elaborates on the relationship between knowledge and innovation, as well as the relationship between knowledge, creativity, and innovation. Entrepreneurs extensively consume scientific research, particularly to expand their knowledge bases. Similar to knowledge, entrepreneurs both...

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Ersa Lanang SANJAYA Jimmy Ellya KURNIAWAN Stefani VIRLIA

Adolescents’ Entrepreneurial Orientation Based on Leisure Time

Adolescence age is an important time to develop the entrepreneurial potential. One of the important predictors for determining the career as entrepreneurs when they become adults is the entrepreneurial orientation of adolescents. Adolescence closely related to leisure time. Leisure time will help teenagers determine their contribution to their social experience. This study aims to examine the differences of adolescent entrepreneurial orientation based on their leisure time. The number of sample included 182 students. The scale used was based on an entrepreneurial orientation scale consisting of 52 statement items with a reliability range of 0.762-0.832 and CITC values above 0.3. The results showed that there were significant differences between entrepreneurial orientation and leisure time (p

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Examining the Relationships between Service Quality, Corporate Image, Customer Satisfaction, and Customer Loyalty for an Indonesian Bank

This research aimed to discover the effect of service quality, corporate image, and customer satisfaction on customer loyalty. The primary data used in this study was obtained from a structured questionnaire sent to 98 customers of Bank BJB Saharjo, Jakarta Branch. Quantitative research was achieved using AMOS program to develop a structural equation model. The results of the study showed that service quality had a positive impact on customer loyalty, however corporate image had a negative effect on customer loyalty. Service quality and corporate image have a positive effect on customer satisfaction. Customer satisfaction is a positive determinant of customer loyalty. Thus, this paper supports previous empirical analysis and improves knowledge on improving relationships with bank customers.

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Entrepreneurship, Innovation and Strategic Foresight: How Entrepreneurs Engage the Future as Opportunity

This study investigates how entrepreneurs and innovators engage the future, and it reflects on how strategic foresight (also called futures studies) can contribute to innovation and entrepreneurship. The literature emphasizes the importance of planning for the future, but not much attention has been given to how entrepreneurs view, forecast and incorporate the future, and how this influences their innovation and creativity. The study found that entrepreneurs are disconnected from the future, and do not take it seriously. The future is mostly left to unfold, and it appears as a surprise. Entrepreneurs use simple methods to engage the future, and their understanding of it is vague. There is a lack of leadership and coordination around the future, and very little intervention around the future. Entrepreneurs recognize a general connection between the future and innovation, but they fail to see the relationship between innovation and futures studies. Futures studies are central to...

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A Systems Thinking and Design Thinking Approach to Leadership

Systems Thinking, Design Thinking and Leadership have largely been developed independently of each other. More recently, there have been, ongoing initiatives to integrate Systems Thinking and Design Thinking. The main aim of this abstract paper is to suggest that the effectiveness of this integrated approach is uniquely linked to leadership. The paper will emphasise the important role played by leadership and explore how leadership has developed through the different paradigms. The benefits of viewing these transitions from a Kuhnian scientific paradigm perspective is highlighted followed by a Systemic view of leadership and then a presentation of a Design Thinking perspective noting that the attributes arising out of the two approaches will benefit leadership. This leads to a discussion of how leadership will benefit from the integrated Systems and Design Thinking approach.

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The Influence of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) Disclosure on Firm Value with Stakeholder Reaction as the Mediation Variable

This study is focused on evaluating CSR programs in Indonesia by examining the influence of CSR disclosure on the firm values through the mediation of stakeholders’ (customers and employees) reaction. This study applies an explanatory research approach and uses data of non-service corporations which enlisted at Indonesia Stock Exchange (IDX) from 2012 to 2014. A saturated sample technique is implemented to draw the sample and this study employs a structural equation modeling (variance-based). The implication of these results suggests that the government, as a regulator in the stock market, should provide a complete guidance about how to make a good CSR report which refers to Global Reporting Initiative. Eventually, this guidance could be used by stakeholder to make appropriate economic decisions. For companies, it is important to pay attention to CSR disclosure on the annual report or the company’s sustainability report because it is positively associated with the reaction of...

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Roxana Elena POPȘA

Developments on the International Hotel Chain Market

Tourism is a mass phenomenon, and as a result, the number of accommodation capacities has increased enormously in recent years, especially in hotel groups, whether integrated or voluntary. Currently, a large part of hotel chains has subsidiaries around the world and covers major aspects of international tourism demand through their own distribution systems. Under these circumstances, this paper aims to analyse the global evolution of the main hotel chains, while also presenting performance issues, including average daily rate (ADR), and occupancy rate.

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Kuncoro Dewi RAHMAWATI Fransisca Putri Intan WARDHANI Jimmy Ellya KURNIAWAN

Adolescents’ Entrepreneurial Orientation in terms of Perceived Self-Temperament

Entrepreneurial orientation is an important construct that usually affects performance, profit, product growth and innovation in a company. Some successful entrepreneurs have shown this character since adolescence. Therefore, it would be better if this entrepreneurial orientation is implemented early on. Researchers are interested in looking at the relationship between entrepreneurial orientation and personality, especially personality that is nature, referring to The Theory of Humours by Hippocrates (460 BC) and Galen (2 AD). Based on the results of the One-Way ANOVA test, it was found that there were significant differences from the four temperaments in the dimensions of innovativeness, risk taking, proactiveness and autonomy (p less than 0.05). Whereas in the competitive-aggressiveness dimension it is known that there are no significant differences in the four temperaments (p less than 0.05). Overall, entrepreneurial orientation variables, obtained results that there are...

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Ibrahim DANJUMA Faiza Abubakar BAWURO Mary Augustine VASSUMU Sharif Ahmed HABIBU

The Service Quality Scale Debate: A Tri-Instrument Perspective for Higher Education Institutions

Service quality issues, over the years, have become an important consumer trend and have gained ground in service marketing literature in general, and the extant literature on higher education, in particular. Despite the fact that service quality is more difficult to measure than the quality of goods, several instruments for measuring service quality have been developed and validated, such as SERVQUAL, SERVPERF and HEDPERF. This article analysed three instruments for measuring service quality: SERVQUAL, SERVPERF, HEDPERF and compared them in terms of strengths and weaknesses within the context of higher education institutions. Although, both SERVPERF and HEDPERF instruments seem to have some reasonable measure of stability over the disconfirmation perspective of SERVQUAL scale, however, the growing competitions in the service industry has made SERVQUAL to be better because of its diagnostic ability. Using SERVQUAL to evaluate service quality would enable managers to identify and...

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Bogdan AVRAM

The Route Development Strategies of Romanian Airports: A Key Challenge in Modern Aviation

Airport route development can be defined as a complex process carried out by airports, encouraging airlines to launch new routes or increase frequencies on already served destinations. The deregulated aviation environment helped airports to find new and innovative ways to compete directly with each other for a limited airline capacity, engaging with airlines and proving the airport route development strategy and airline needs meet at a certain point. The future prosperity of the communities the airports serve, depends on the efforts of the route development team and their focused aviation marketing strategy. A huge responsibility to attract what is best for the community as well as a good coordination between the airport, tourism boards, local business community and the active involvement of the citizens is crucial for any development strategy.

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Local Consumers’ Purchase Intention toward Ghanaian Chocolate Brand

This study applied the theory of planned behaviour to predict intentions to purchase locally manufactured Ghanaian Golden Tree chocolate brand, as very little research attention has been paid to consumption of chocolate in cocoa producing countries. A random sample of 257 working and non-working University students responded to self-administered questionnaires. A structural model was developed based on intention, attitude, subjective norm and perceived behavioural control, and multiple regression analysis carried out to test the model’s ability to predict purchasing intention. There was low consumer intention to purchase the local chocolate brand. Attitude, subjective norm and perceived behavioural control collectively explained 55.5 percent of the variance in intention to purchase chocolate, and attitude was the strongest and significant predictor of intention to purchase. The study fills a gap in our understanding of chocolate purchasing behaviour of local consumers in a cocoa...

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Personal and Social Attributes as Determinants of Entrepreneurial Intention

The concept of entrepreneurship is an interesting phenomenon in the context of contemporary economy today. Since entrepreneurship is directly linked to small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs), the existence of SME is important because SME is one of the factors driving the increase of economic growth. Many studies have aimed to discover and formulate what attributes contribute to the intent of becoming an entrepreneur and the success of an entrepreneur. Based on research conducted by Hongdiyanto (2017), there are 4 attributes trusted to mold entrepreneurs through learning models which are personal, social, support and organization. In this study, the researcher chose two attributes (personal and social) to be discussed further. This research represents a conceptual study that will discuss in detail these two variables, namely personal and social attributes. As a result, personal and social attributes are explored in detail with examples and useful descriptions.

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Nicolene DE BEER Nadia OMAR

An Exploration of the Alignment between Managers’ Competencies and their Job Functions in the South African Post Office

This study explores the alignment of managers’ competencies with their job functions in the South African Post Office. Before alignment was explored, managers’ competencies were determined through self-assessments by managers and peer- assessments by subordinates. Fifty-five managers across four levels of management and 74 direct subordinates participated in the survey. Forty-four job profiles of managers were utilised to determine the job competencies of managers at SAPO. Twenty competencies were identified as job competencies against which the competencies of managers are aligned. Not only are the competencies of managers aligned to their job functions and competencies, but their job competencies are also aligned to researched competency models for management. This quantitative research study contains valuable information regarding the competencies of managers at SAPO and could contribute positively to leadership development, not only at SAPO, but also to other similar state-owned...

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Entrepreneurship and Innovation: The Antecedents of Opportunity

The study examines the antecedents of opportunity in greater detail. A literature review highlights 9 antecedents of opportunity, and it was further investigated how these factors impact opportunity recognition. Some of the leading antecedents of opportunity were: solving problems, goals and aspirations, artistic creativity, adoption and networking. None of the antecedents by themselves are sufficient for innovation, as each has a caveat that may also hinder innovation. Also, it is evident that a number of the antecedents may offer unique solutions and benefits, including the acceleration of the identification of ideas and opportunities. In certain contexts, one antecedent may be more applicable or beneficial than another. Each antecedent potentially offers and allows expert areas of innovation, with innovators becoming very experienced in a particular antecedent as an area of innovation. Consequently, the innovator may continually gravitate towards a certain antecedent. A number of...

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Regina Rovelia KAMBEY Fulgentius Danardana MURWANI Heri PRATIKTO

Determinants of Export Performance of Indonesian Coconut Companies

This research aims to identify several influential factors on export performance of superior coconut commodity in North Sulawesi Province, especially when it relates to the pricing strategy, firm characteristics, and export strategy during 2016-2017. The research is included into a descriptive and explanatory research that exerts quantitative approaches. The data are collected via questionnaire which was sent to nineteen export companies of superior coconut commodity in North Sulawesi. To analyze the data, this research uses the regression technique of data panel engaging Random Effect Model (REM) approach. The results of research show that: 1) The pricing strategy positively and significantly influences the export performance; 2) The firm characteristics positively and significantly influence the export performance; 3) The export strategy positively and significantly influences the export performance. From the identified variables in the research, the firm characteristics have a...

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The Effect of Job Insecurity on Organizational Commitment in Impermanent Temporary Employees of an Indonesian Company

Most companies, either large or small, now employ more impermanent temporary employees, than full-time (permanent) employees. Impermanent temporary employees usually bear the same workload as regular employees or even more. However, in terms of salaries or other facilities, it is completely different for temporary employees, so they tend to feel less comfortable at work. One of the problems that arise from the inconvenience is the lack of commitment of temporary employees to the organization. This study aims to discover the effect of job insecurity on organizational commitment of impermanent temporary employees from Anggrek and Cempaka units in PT Royal Korindah. Purbalingga. Variables used in this research are: ‘job insecurity’ as the independent variable and ‘organizational commitment’ as the dependent variable. This study involves 82 temporary impermanent employees of the units examined. The results of data analysis indicate that there is a effect of job insecurity toward...

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Determinants of Competitiveness in Companies that Comprise the Aerospace Cluster in the State of Sonora

Most of the leading countries in the world production of the aerospace sector, over time, have triangulated their production, by installing plants in other countries, to reduce costs. The United States concentrates most of the world production of aircraft. Consequently, Mexico has joined this dynamic production process through the operation of almost four hundred companies in this industrial sector. The states of Baja California, Chihuahua, Nuevo Leon, Querétaro and Sonora, lead the production of this sector in Mexico. The objective of this work is to determine if the companies in the aerospace sector of the state of Sonora are competitive in a regional context with respect to the growth of the entire sector in the country. The degree of competitiveness was calculated using the Competitive Advantage Index in two levels –the aerospace sector at the national level and at the state level-. The results of this research confirm that the competitiveness of companies in the aerospace sector...

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Bruce MASAMA Juan-Pierré BRUWER

Revisiting the Economic Factors which Influence Fast Food South African Small, Medium and Micro Enterprise Sustainability

In order to stimulate both developing economies and developed economies around the globe policy makers have, over the years, focused their attention to Small, Medium and Micro Enterprises (SMMEs). These business entities are often regarded as the lifeblood of economies around the globe however SMMEs are reported to have high failure rates. For example, in a South African dispensation, the failure rate of SMMEs is considered to be among the worst in the world as approximately 75% fail within a period of 42 months after opening. Through research in the early-2000s, the cause of the excessive South African SMMEs failure rate has been pinned on a plethora of micro-economic factors and macro-economic factors. Over the years the list of economic factors which adversely influence the sustainability of South African SMMEs have not changed drastically, which may well probably explain the high failure rate of these business entities in more recent times. Thus, for this paper, empirical research...

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Akinlawon O. AMOO Shamila SINGH

The Mediating and Moderating Role of Job Satisfaction in the Leadership Behaviour and Work Engagement Relationship

The aim of the present study was to investigate job satisfaction as a moderator of the relationship between leadership behaviour and trainee work engagement. The study was conducted in an artisan training academy located inthe East of Johannesburg. Data was collected from the entire population of 150 employed trainees in the academy using: (i) a self-designed demographical data questionnaire; (ii)the Harris and Ogbonna (2001) 13-item leadership behaviour questionnaire (iii) the Utrecht work engagement scale (UWES) developed by Schaufeli et al. (2002), and (iv) the single global rating for job satisfaction developed in 1990 by Allen and Meyer. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis were conducted in a census study of 150 trainees. Results showed that work engagement is significantly affected by leadership behaviour, and job satisfaction mediated and moderated the leadership behaviour – work engagement relationship.

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Juan-Pierré BRUWER Luyolo SIWANGAZA Yolandé SMIT

Loss Control and Loss Control Strategies in SMMEs Operating in a Developing Country: A Literature Review

A large proportion of South African Small, Medium and Micro Enterprises (SMMEs) make use of customised internal control initiatives and customised risk management practices to mitigate and/or manage risks, to provide reasonable assurance regarding the attainment of objectives in the foreseeable future. According to research studies however, the aforementioned internal control initiatives and risk management practices are deemed to be inadequate and/or ineffective. This is especially the case as these business entities are predominantly focused on preventing generic risks in relation to the safeguarding of assets and independent checks, while ignoring key risks which may be detrimental to the attainment of their objectives. Since approximately 70% of South African SMMEs fail after being in existence less than four years it is highly probable that these business entities are not paying enough attention to mitigate and/or manage key risks (potential loss events) and controlling actual...

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The Second Curve. Driving Individual and Organizational Change

The following paper presents the applicability of the “second curve” concept in the organizational environment, emphasizing the importance of coordinating the individual and organizational changes in a pre-established direction. Moreover, the aim is to offer a theoretical and practical basis for all the practitioners that need to control change and to plan any further next steps, being it either an individual career development or an organizational growth planning. In order to conclude this, the paper approaches organizational change as a constant necessity, willing to demonstrate that the individual controlled changes implemented at the correct moment will have a controlled organizational impact and will therefore lead to organizational change and development. Also, using the “second curve” as the representation of a change in the initial path (considered the “first curve”), the paper redefines change as a solution not only to problems and issues, but as well as a method of keeping...

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Bogdan AVRAM

The Hybrid Airline Model. Generating Quality for Passengers

This research aims to investigate the different strategies adopted by the airline companies in adapting to the ongoing changes while developing products and services for passengers in order to increase their yield, load factor and passenger satisfaction. Finding a balance between costs and services quality in the airline industry is a crucial task for every airline wanting to gain a competitive advantage on the market. Also, the rise of the hybrid business operating model has brought up many challenges for airlines as the line between legacy carriers and low-cost carriers is getting thinner in terms of costs and innovative ideas to create a superior product for the passengers.

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The Influence of Working Environment Conditions, Compensation and Career Development on Employees’ Working Motivation at an Indonesian Bank

This research aims to understand and analyse the influence of working environment conditions and career development towards the improvement of employees’ working motivation. This research is conducted at the Bank Rakyat Indonesia (Persero) Ltd. Tulungagung Jawa Timur Office Branch. The sample amount counted by census technique and acquired 91 responses. The sampling method used was census technique. The data collection instrument is a questionnaire which is analysed by path analysis. Findings in this research show significant direct influence of working environment, compensation, and career development towards employees’ working motivation. This means that employee motivation will rise with the presence of delightful working environment, compensation, and career development. This research is contributing as a consideration and advice for BRI Tulungagung Office Branch management since working environment condition, compensation, and career development can positively influence the...

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Franz HAAS

Model Building – A Circular Approach to Evaluate Multidimensional Patterns and Operationalized Procedures

Managers operate in highly different fields. Decision-making can be based on models reflecting in part these differences. The challenge is to connect the respective models without too great a disruption. A threefold procedural approach is proposed by chaining a scheme of modeling in a complex field to an operationalized model to statistical multivariate methods. Multivariate pattern-detecting methods offer the chance to evaluate patterns within the complex field partly. This step completes the cycle of research and improved models can be used in a further cycle.

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Innovation and Entrepreneurship: The Necessary Conditions of Value Creation

The necessary conditions of value creation are considered from the vantage point of innovation and entrepreneurship. Both demand side (basic needs, customer perceived value, and customer satisfaction) and supply side (science, technology, and knowledge) considerations of value creation are examined. The relationships between value creation and basic needs, customer perceived value, and knowledge are further examined. Although a number of factors are identified that impact value, only four are seen as primary factors of value: price, benefit, satisfaction, and experience. The innovator and entrepreneur can create value, and quantify the uniqueness of their value offerings, through these four primary factors. The study concludes that, on the demand side, basic needs may be an indirect driver of value creation, and customer perceived value as concept may be useful in the context of value creation. At the same time, it is believed that the four factors – price, benefit, satisfaction, and...

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Sandra EBERT

Consumer Psychology Insights and their Use for Operational Book Marketing

The aim of this article is to provide first insights on how Consumer Psychology could enhance operational book marketing through book design in particular. After highlighting the current German book market and its highly competitive and fast transforming market situation, the article summarizes recent findings from the field of Consumer Psychology relevant for the book market. To focus lies in the book design which has a large influence on the buyer’s decision making. Three facets of consumer psychological book design (text design, book body and cover design) will be object of the research. Research form Consumer Psychology aim on optimization of stimulus design in order to achieve better information perception, processing and memorization gain better customer awareness and increase the likelihood of a positive buying decision. Overall, especially such a highly competitive market as the book market has a lot to gain from applying findings from the field of Consumer Psychology.

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Analysis of the Effect of Individual Characteristics, Employees’ Competency and Organizational Climate on Job Satisfaction and Employees’ Performance at a State-Owned Trading Company in Indonesia

Job satisfaction and employees’ performance are important for the organization to improve the company's competitive value. This research aims to know the influence of individual characteristic, employees’ competency and organizational climate toward job satisfaction and its implication on employees’ performance. The research method used in this research is cross sectional survey. The population of this research was from 4 cities with a total sample of 51 employees. Moreover, this research applied structural equation modeling with Partial Least Square approach for analyzing the data. The results showed that individual characteristics do not effect on job satisfaction, while employees’ competency and organizational climate have a significant effect on job satisfaction. Then, job satisfaction has a significant effect on employees’ performance. It is necessary to conduct training and education programs along with flexible structural support and adequate rewards for the employees to...

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Supply Chain of the Beef Market in Indonesia

Indonesian beef market is very interesting considering the 250 million people residing in the country. In a year, around 670 million kg of beef are consumed; 440 million kg are supplied by local production and 230 million are imported. The price of beef in the Indonesian market (US$ 9.1) is about double that in Australia (US$ 4.2). The high price and the wide margin becomes an appeal for a deeper inquiry. This raises questions such as how does the supply chain look like, how is the distribution of the wide margin from importers to retailers, does corruption still exist due to the import licensed, and who really enjoys the profit. This study aims to analyze the supply chain of beef industry and the factors affecting meat prices in Indonesia. The data was collected through a survey of 134 respondents in seven districts and cities in Surakarta, Indonesia followed by in-depth interviews with breeders, slaughters, wholesalers, retailers and consumers. The results show that factors...

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Impact of Brand Image, Product Quality and Self-Efficacy on Purchase Decisions on Private Label Rights Products. An Empirical Study

Present research was aimed at analyzing the impact of brand image, product quality and self-efficacy on purchase decision on private label rights (PLR) products among Medan city community members. A hundred community members of Medan City were involved as the subjects of this research. The research results showed that the variable of product quality has a significant effect on consumer purchase decisions. It is concluded that good quality products in private label rights (PLR) products should be maintained and even improved, thus leading to more positive societal impression on private label rights (PLR) products. Some of the respondents consider private label rights (PLR) products with good product quality presents more interest to try or buy.

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Alexander STELZER

Negotiation as a Function in Supply Chain Transactions

This scientific study is investigating the economic and success factors of success in negotiation in the world of trade and sale. In addition to the keynotes of the Harvard concept, my study focuses largely on trust and transparency at annual meetings or other meetings held throughout the year, strongly favouring a satisfactory result for both negotiating parties. A conceptual model has been proposed to merge the fundamental principles of the Harvard Negotiation Concept with the finding that trust and transparency in communication is a key factor in terms of economic success experiences and socio - mental satisfaction.

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Franz HAAS

Deciding the Entry Mode in Chinese Markets. Practices Managers Should Avoid Pursuing

This research project considers Austrian enterprises, which have been pursuing business partnerships and relations with Chinese companies. One specific question of the research aimed at finding out which factors lead to pronounced difficulties experienced by companies having chosen a specific market entry strategies. This research question was explored through a primary research of 86 managers participating in an online survey in 2016. The data analysis implied an exploratory factor analysis of ten pre-defined factors that led to a new model of five components depicting narrow decision-making processes, namely: relying too much on company-related external expertise, national- or international-related external expertise, isolated practices like adopting what other companies do, purely financial-driven processes, or encapsulated decision processes. The factor scores’ analysis shows that there are significant differences between companies from different economic sectors.

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Visvanathan NAICKER Suzaan LE ROUX Juan BRUWER Juan-Pierré BRUWER

Knowledge Sharing as a Value-Adding Initiative for South African SMME Sustainability: A Literature Review

Knowledge management is deemed as an important tool for an array of firms across the globe to fortify their overall sustainability. In particular, the proper management of knowledge inside a firm should allow for better efficiency and effectiveness. One of the facets of knowledge management is that of knowledge sharing; better understood as the dissemination of knowledge (insight) to such an extent, and in such a manner, that it assists with the solving of problems and/or the creation of solutions within a firm. Albeit the aforementioned, is appears that small businesses (SMMEs) in South Africa do not make use of sound knowledge sharing initiatives as they have one of the worst sustainability rates in the world. Through the conduct of non-empirical research, this matter was theoretically investigated where it was found that the lack of knowledge sharing as a value-adding initiative within South African SMMEs is assumed to have a theoretically adverse influence on the effectiveness...

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Effectiveness of an Integrated Tertiary Software Mobile Information System for Student Registration and Admission at a University in Gauteng

This study investigates whether the new online registration and admission system implemented at a Tertiary Institution in Gauteng, South Africa, was successful and effective. The Institution under study is the first in South Africa to implement this new online registration system from the 3rd of January 2013 using a system called the Integrated Tertiary Software (ITS) Mobile information system. The information system enables students to apply online without physically visiting the institution and provides the status of their registration and admission applications via their smartphones. A total of one hundred 1st year students and ten personnel were sampled to respond to self-completed questionnaires. The efficiency of this new online system was evaluated using the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM), the Web of System Performance (WOSP) model and the DeLone and McLean IS Success model as well as the indicators of system ineffectiveness and attributes on the basis of which an...

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The Impact of School’s Corporate Cultures on Teacher’s Entrepreneurial Orientation: The Mediating Role of Readiness for Change

The competition between schools in this era of globalization, especially among private schools, requisites entrepreneurial orientation development to private schools context. Many previous studies showed that entrepreneurial orientation can be influenced by corporate cultures. However, those previous studies have been mostly done on employees or managers at profit-oriented institutions. On the contrary, school teachers as employees in non-profit institution are often assumed to be conservative, prefer to have a relatively safe work, and tend to avoid changes, so they are not necessarily interested in doing entrepreneurial-oriented activities. Thus, the teacher's readiness for change also needs to be a mediator variable between corporate cultures and teacher’s entrepreneurial orientation. The purpose of this study is to examine the role of corporate cultures in schools toward teacher’s entrepreneurial orientation with teacher’s readiness for change as a mediator. The subject of this...

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Ehsan Saeed Idrees YAQOOT Wan Shakizah Wan MOHD. NOOR Mohd Faizal MOHD ISA

Antecedents of Training Effectiveness in Bahrain

This study focuses on antecedents of the training programmes’ effectiveness at public sector organizations in Bahrain. A Kirkpatrick model is utilized as a partial research framework and tested as the dependent variable training effectiveness in this study. This study further examines the relationship between the independent variables, trainer and social support toward training effectiveness. The survey instrument was developed for data collection and the questionnaires were distributed to the staff working in the public sector in Bahrain. The total usable questionnaires are 128. The study adopts a quantitative approach using SPSS statistic approach. The outcomes also discover that both antecedents have a positive and a significant relationship with the training effectiveness at various Kirkpatrick’s levels.

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The Conduciveness of the South African Economic Environment and Small, Medium and Micro Enterprise Sustainability: A Literature Review

Since the early 1980s Small, Medium and Micro Enterprises (SMMEs) have been regarded as the driving forces of both developing and developed economies around the world. In a South African dispensation, SMMEs are responsible for adding imperative socio-economic value to the country, particularly in terms of eradicating poverty and diminishing unemployment levels. By doing so, these business entities are believed to contribute at least 50% to the national Gross Domestic Product. Albeit the aforementioned, previous research studies report that up to 75% of South African SMMEs fail after being in existence for only 42 months. Though the latter dispensation has been blamed on many economic factors, over the years the sustainability of South African SMMEs has not improved to a great extent. In order to provide insight on the latter dispensation, this literature review paper was conducted to ultimately formulate two hypotheses for further empirical testing.

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Gamage Dinoka Nimali PERERA Mada Gamage Geetha THARANGANIE Udayangani Kumari THALGASPITIYA

Performance Management Practices in the Listed Companies in Sri Lanka

In today’s world of business, the role of quality among employees is imperative for companies to survive in the competitive in global market. Hence, performance management practices (PMP) have been indispensable for companies. This study intended to scrutinize whether employee capacity, years of existence and ownership of listed companies relate to PMP in Sri Lanka. The companies that have been listed in the Colombo Stock Exchange were selected as the sample for the study and, with a firm level unit of analysis, a self-administered survey was conducted covering all the companies using the five point Likert scale of 27 statements. 244 questionnaires were distributed among either human resource manager or performance managers or human resource development manager respondents on behalf of the company and 216 returned questionnaires were deemed usable for further analysis amounting to 88% response rate. In a pilot study, it was revealed that the measurement scales met the acceptable...

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Is the Control Environment a Basis for Customised Risk Management Initiatives in South African Small, Medium and Micro Enterprises?

Before the official recognition of Small, Medium and Micro Enterprises (SMMEs) in South Africa during the mid-1990s, these business entities have been key players in the stimulation of the national economy. Albeit their socio-economic value added, prior research shows that the sustainability of these business are among the worst in the world, since approximately 70% of South African SMMEs fail within their first three years of existence. This dispensation is often blamed on inter alia, their inadequate management of economic factors which, in turn, cultivates risks. Notwithstanding the fact that most South African SMMEs make use of customised risk management initiatives, previous research shows that these initiatives are not deemed as adequate and/or effective to mitigate risks. Since the manner in which risks are managed are strongly dependent on the attitude and awareness of its management surrounding internal control (control environment), this study focused on investigating...

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Hamdi Jaber AL-BARAKAT Hisham Ali SHATNAWI

Factors of Attracting Customers in the Jordanian Consumer Markets Amman Markets: A Case Study

This study aims to identify the influential factors of shopping patterns in commercial markets. The study was carried out on a random sample consisting of 249 consumers in the city of Amman. The study also used a questionnaire as an essential tool to collect data for the study population; also it used scientific research in the field of commercial markets and consumer behaviors in collecting secondary data. After conducting a statistically significant analysis, the study showed the following results: the study sample is affected by the quality of provided services and how much these services exhibit convenience and appropriate use. Also, the promotional policies such as advertising, samples, gifts and withdraw on goods and much more can attract customers towards these markets. Moreover, the study found that psychological factors and consumes’ patterns of purchasing have a direct impact on their choices of commercial markets.

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Carbon Finance – A Platform for Development of Sustainable Business in Kuwait

Since 1880, the temperature of global has increased by 0.85 degree Celsius. Due to the increase in temperature, the impact of climate change is constantly increasing, which is known as global warming. The increase in temperature is due to emission of greenhouse gases. Carbon dioxide is a major greenhouse gas, which is capable of causing serious hazardous influence to the environment. Carbon emission reduction and low-carbon economy development have become global targets and national policy in both developing and developed countries. Carbon finance is a tool for reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions using a process called capture and storage (CCS). Using this process, the carbon dioxide is captured and stored for further usage as a renewable resource. Carbon finance has a high impact on the growth of sustainable business development. This research analyzes the various possibilities of developing sustainable business through carbon trading in Kuwait and the strategic options offered...

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Arif Orcun SAKARYA

How Do Enterprises Communicate Their Innovation Strategies? An Assessment and Comparison of Turkish Firms’ Website Statements

Innovation strategy practices primarily aim to sustain competitive advantage and growth via new business models and added value. The goal of this study is to discover the extent of innovation statements communicated to stakeholders by Turkish firms listed in the second top 500 industrial enterprises ranking of Istanbul Chamber of Industry as of 2013 and 2014. To do this, topics closely related to innovation are examined via a comparative analysis of related website contents. The study includes four main parts. The first and second parts review the literature and theoretical background. The third part introduces the methodological framework of the paper including the profile of the firms under consideration and analytical procedures. Content analysis is used to group web-based information related to innovation and other notions. Groups include mission, vision and values, research and development ability, and innovation related topics which statement densities are discussed in the...

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The Influence of Load Shedding on the Productivity of Hotel Staff in Cape Town, South Africa

In South Africa, ESCOM is the country’s main electricity supplier. Since 2008, Eskom has implemented load shedding on an ongoing basis as a result of insufficient electricity supply to meet the demands of all its customers. Owing to the fact that many organisations across South Africa are depended on electricity in order to function, previous research studies show that the wide-spread impact of load shedding has had an adverse on the sustainability of many of these organisations. Among these organisations are those based in the hospitality industry – imperative in relation to the stimulation of the national economy; directly related to tourism. Albeit the aforementioned, the sustainability of organisations in the hospitality industry is also heavily dependent on the productivity of their employees. For this research study the influence of load shedding on the productivity of the staff in the hospitality industry was investigated within one particular hotel (Hotel X) based in Cape Town...

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Mechanisms for Quality Assurance of Universities in Cameroon

This paper takes a perspective look at the evolution of universities in Cameroon and the recent orientation of deregulation as it affects quality assurance in Cameroonian universities. The paper having identified these flaws attempted to elucidate the meaning of mechanism for Quality assurance in the face of deregulation. The regulatory mechanisms identified by this paper include inter- alia, appropriate scrutiny of new programmes, relying on impartial advise of examiners. Using the state law NO.98/004 of 1998 to compliment the efforts of internal school administration and above all opening linkages between universities and relating universities education in the World of science and technology. This paper does not only enhance quality assurance but also builds the idea of economic growth and development.

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Masamitsu KIUCHI Kazushi NAGAI Kenichi NAKASHIMA

A Study on the Effects of Client Company Information on the On-Site Logistics and Processes in a Supply Chain: A New Design Approach using Quality Function Deployment

Recently, manufacturing companies have to construct supply chains considering the contingencies of global clients. In order to meet global demand, companies are required to quickly grasp the information which is disseminated in the supply chain. This study focuses on business to business (B to B) manufacturing model in a supply chain. Generally, manufacturing companies which supply the products to client companies engaged in B to B structures deliver the products according to the client companies’ order. Manufacturing companies subsequently deliver the product depending on the order specifications that determine the delivery time, the order quantity, the order quality and so on. Therefore, the orders requisitioned by client companies might cause some impacts on the operations in the companies engaged in B to B structures in the supply chain. We suggest a new approach to solving the operation problems using Quality Function Deployment (QFD). QFD is a powerful methodology and is...

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Conditional Relationship Between Beta and Return in the US Stock Market

According to the CAPM, risk is measured by the beta, and the relation between required expected return and beta is linear. This paper examines the conditional relationship between beta and return in the US stock market. The conditional covariances and variances used to estimate beta are modeled as an ARCH process. The beta return relationship is tested upon the sign of the excess market return. The implication of the sign of the excess market return follows Morelli (2011). This study shows the importance of recognizing the sign of the excess market return when testing the beta-return relationship. The approach also allows us to distinguish the size effect and the effect of economic cycles.

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Yakup DURMAZ Zeynep Derya DÜŞÜN

Importance of Strategic Management in Business

Today, we see a busy and fast period of change in all area of our life. This process consistently changes especially the management domain and forces business managers to be ready to change at any moment. Change has become so fast all around the world and it has turned into a multidimensional concept. The period of change in which we live in an interactive and fast way in political, social, cultural and economic areas brings up different processes such as quick start, quick decision making, bringing more dynamics and flexibility structure to management. In this context, the main idea of our study is based on that businesses should manage the process of change by using strategies. Businesses which understand clearly what strategy is and design their future plans based on those strategies are going to be more successful than their competitors in the environments seen fierce competition and fast change. In our study formed around this basic thesis, first we will make a conceptual...

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Nicola ZECH

The Integrated Crisis Management Model for the Hotel Industry: Lowering Crisis Susceptibility and Strengthening Stakeholder Relationship Management

This research paper focuses on crisis management processes within the hotel industry – an industry which still seems reluctant in implementing profound and structured crisis management concepts. Responses to crisis situations are mostly intuitive and ad-hoc. In times of high competition in almost all destinations, categories and conceptions no opportunity of convincing guests as well as all other stakeholders of a trustworthy management shall be missed in order to gain competitive advantage. Each corporate crisis affects several or all stakeholder groups of the organisation – to a varying extent. Stakeholders might either affect or be affected by the hotel organisation and the respective crisis management processes. Taking the manifold opportunities for co-operation of a hotel organisation and its respective stakeholder groups into consideration, an integrated crisis management model for the hotel industry is evolved based both on theoretical foundations and empirical findings from...

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Mogamat Riyaadh BARNES Corne Truter VAN NIEKERK Ayesha GOOL William-John GROENER Tracy LEE Zubair MOOLA Juan-Pierré BRUWER Yolandé SMIT

The Potential Influence of Value Added Tax Law Amendments on the Existence of E-Service Providing SMMEs in South Africa

In South Africa, almost all existing businesses are regarded as Small Medium and Micro Enterprises (SMMEs). Through legislation, the South African government has identified SMMEs as the best enablers to help with the achievement of certain core socio-economic objectives; particularly the creation of jobs and reduction of poverty levels. According to previous research studies these business entities are not achieving the latter socio-economic objectives; mainly as a result of their weak existence rate – up to 80% of these business entities fail within their first three years of existence. The latter is believed to stem from the realisation of economic factors – a major economic factor which adversely influences South African SMMEs is that of taxation. Over the years, more South African SMMEs have started to make use of the internet to conduct their respective business, which spurred the national government to make amendments to existing Value Added Tax (VAT) Laws by levying taxation on...

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Alexander STELZER

Decision Making and Negotiation Processes in the Food Trade

This scientific study focuses on the economic and especially the psychosocial factors of success in negotiation processes between buyers (procurers) and suppliers (producers) in the food trade. In particular, it examines the economic and mental satisfaction in the decision-making and in the negotiation processes for efficient food supply. It studies primarily transparency in addition to the Harvard concept at annual meetings (or during the year) favoring a satisfactory result for both negotiators. In a structural equation model, the Harvard negotiating points are brought together with transparency in communication, in terms of successful economic experiences and socio-mental satisfaction.

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An Analysis of Youth Employment in Azerbaijan Success of Leadership

The aim of our project statement includes youth unemployment, underemployment as well as the attitude of young people to the labor market. Youth unemployment is a global problem. In Azerbaijan, it is becoming more challenging not only because of the lack of jobs, but also the lack of technical skills such as CV and cover letter writing, job interviewing and so on. This paper offers a first comprehensive study of the relationship between labor market policies and youth employment in Azerbaijan. The second aim of this paper to learn the performance of young leaders, and leadership in Azerbaijan. Article has emerged as a result of project and primary, secondary data.

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Linear and Non-Linear Regression: Powerful and Very Important Forecasting Methods

Regression Analysis is at the center of almost every Forecasting technique, yet few people are comfortable with the Regression methodology. We hope to improve the level of comfort with this article. In this article we briefly discuss the theory behind the methodology and then outline a step-by-step procedure, which will allow almost everyone to construct a Regression Forecasting function for both the linear and some non-linear cases. Also discussed, in addition to the model construction mentioned above, is model testing (to establish significance) and the procedure by which the Final Regression equation is derived and retained to be used as the Forecasting equation. Hand solutions are derived for some small-sample problems (for both the linear and non-linear cases) and their solutions are compared to the MINITAB-derived solutions to establish confidence in the statistical tool, which can be used exclusively for larger problems.

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Human Resource Management’s Marketing Approach and Its Contribution Towards Employee-Satisfaction

In times when organizations in Germany are confronted with a constant change-dynamic regarding their working conditions managers understand that human resources are an important driving factor for the overall company’s performance. The attractiveness of an organization towards potential and actual employees is therefore an issue which is of broad interest for general management as it plays an increasing role to reach company’s aims. Necessary for creating such an attractiveness as employer are the establishment of substantiated processes of acquiring and retaining employees. The objective of this paper is to assess whether the application of a company’s human resource management’s marketing approach has an impact on employee satisfaction. Concerning the research methods causal modelling and triangulation of research are used. Quantitative research is applied. Results show that the better a company’s human resource management’s marketing approach in terms of its quality and performance...

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Supplier Analysis of the IMMEX in Sonora

The objective of this research is to identify the factors that prevent the local supply in Sonora from having a bigger development in the export industry. The research methodology consisted of deep interviews to ten companies and their supervisors that we considered to be the most successful, as well as the application of a survey to 40 other companies. We created a diagnosis of the actual factors affecting the low recruitment of Mexican local suppliers by the industry. The idea was to provide the information that we find interesting and relevant to industry associations and Council of State for decision-making that can help increase the supply for the local market and to big companies.

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The Impact of SOX Adoption on the Compensation of Non-US Companies’ Boards: The Case of Canadian Companies

The purpose of this article is to study the relationship between the adoption of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (SOX) and the compensation of the board of directors of Canadian companies listed on US stock markets. The SOX act, promulgated on 30 July 2002 and the rules adopted by the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) require, among furthermore, a majority of independent directors on boards. The literature focuses on two main differences between US companies and Canadian companies: more concentrated ownership and the smaller market capitalization of Canadian companies. Therefore, a consistent application of SOX on all the companies that differ at the base, in their size and structure, may have a different impact on the costs of compliance. Using a sample of 17 Canadian companies listed on US stock exchanges from 2001 to 2004, our analysis show that there is a link between the adoption of SOX and the increased in the cash compensation of the board of directors. The results also show that...

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Upper Echelon Theory: Role of Community and Strategy

In this paper I argue that community plays an important role in shaping the values and characteristics of top management teams. It builds on upper echelon theory to posit that community level characteristics are instrumental in framing the cognitions of CEOs and top executives. Strategic decisions made by managers in organizations represent the significant impact community has on top management teams. Examining the influence community has on top management teams provides additional implications about why certain firms perform better than others.

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Alexander STELZER

Global Leadership and Organizational Change from Past to Now

Organizational theory and organizational research (namely, organizational behavior), have the purpose of organizations – to explain and understand – their origin, their existence and their functioning. Therefore, I try in my work, different approaches to take up. To this end, I chose different books and articles to explain and expand the knowledge on this subject.

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Remodeling Strategic Staff Safety and Security Risks Management in Nigerian Tertiary Institutions

This paper examined safety and security risk management in tertiary institutions in Nigeria. The frequent attacks at workplace, especially schools, have placed safety and security in the front burner of discussion in both business and political circles. This therefore, forms the imperative for the conduct of this study. The work adopted a cross sectional survey research design and collected data from respondents who are security personnel of the University of Uyo. Analysis of data was done with simple percentage statistics while the research hypotheses were tested with mean and simple regression and correlation statistics. The findings of the study revealed that assassination, kidnappings and bombings were principal risk incidents threatening the safety and security of staff in University of Uyo. A significant positive relationship was found between the funding of security management and workers’ performance. It was discovered specifically that employment screening, regular training...

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A Conceptual Mapping Resource Advantage Theory, Competitive Advantage Theory, and Transient Competitive Advantage

Competitive advantage is the main purposed of the business entity focusing on market base view. Resource advantage theorists put their concern to empowering resources development with resources based view, in the other side needs to redefining competitive advantage. All the competitive advantage are transient, concluded the end of competitive advantage. Redefining competitive advantage by selling migration and shrewdness outward. This research to emphasize innovation capability rarely appears in the future.

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Are Housing Markets Decoupled? A Case Study of Residential Real Estate Affordability in Austria

Real estate arguably forms the most important asset to most households and the basis for their wealth. Around this context a model has been set up testing the relative affordability of real estate for the median household in Austria and the consequences of lower borrowing costs between 2004 and 2013 by vintage year. In this paper the hypothesis that the significant decline in base interest rates is not sufficient to offset the relative affordability loss caused by declining net household incomes and the simultaneous increase of real estate prices. To test this hypothesis a model has been set up comparing two different Housing Affordability Indices – one including and one excluding financing effects, having been compared via a multi factor model. Based on this calculation the author finds decreased base interest rates to offset relative affordability losses by only approximately 50%, verifying the hypothesis. The paper therefore argues for a potential decoupling of the residential...

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Quality Service and its Relation with Global Satisfaction in Fast Food Consumers. A Case Study

The present study analyzes the quality service perception and its relation with the satisfaction for the fast food consumers of hamburgers’ sector of the chain Burger King in Hermosillo, Sonora. By the application of Servperf of Cronin and Taylor methodology and a data regression method, through the coefficient of determination (R2) was determined that the independent variables explain the variability or variance of 82.9% in consumer satisfaction and that the explanatory variable which has the most influence in absolute value over the explained variable is reliability, due to its standardized beta is 0.301, being the highest score among the variables. To achieve the objective of this study, a quantitative and correlation investigation was designed, where data was collected from a survey structured by five dimensions, measured by 22 items. It was applied to a random and representative sample of 385 consumers, with a 95% level confidence and a ±5% of permissible error. An inferential...

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Producing Just Papers or Creating Added Value? Snap-Shot about Quality Systems at Hungarian SMEs

In this paper, a short historical review and the research results are presented, which are focused on the quality management systems used by the Hungarian SME’s. The research was based on an original empirical survey, conducted using a random sample of fifty managers from small and medium sized Hungarian enterprises. All of them use certified quality management systems. The paper presents their current state in the light of their responses, under several aspects. In conclusion, suggestions are given for the problems, such as measurement, development, and education on the research topic.

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Stress and Time Management Settings in University of Maroua, Cameroon

The aim of this paper is to examine stress and time in educational management in Maroua University. These two phenomena are profound in educational issues in Cameroon due to the complex administration or management. Education comprised of diversity of activities ranging from administration, discipline, teaching, evaluation and learning. Each of these activities requires time schedule to avoid stress in the face of pressure. Administration requires planning, organizing, controlling, commanding, coordinating, reporting and budgeting. Each of these managing variables requires time, just as discipline, teaching, evaluation and learning should need. The situation may be affected by higher authority interference and cause a rush thus affecting every schedule in the system on this note, it is necessary that every administrator on management cadre should develop a list of activities such as admissions, examinations, sports, vacations and other ceremonies which requires his attention on daily...

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Competence Utilization for Innovation Capabilities – A Question of Trust?

The purpose of this paper is to show how trust as an organizational value contributes to employee competence utilization in the case of innovation capability. Thus, it is the objective of this paper to analyze the positive impacts, but also potential limits of trust in business management. The research paper uses two different quantitative empirical studies drawn from German and Austrian mid-sized companies to empirically test this interrelation. As a result, the paper determines particular aspects of trust such as accountability, shared norms and the ability to take responsibility to be interrelated with the usage of employee competences and underlines a positive connection between product innovation performance and trust. However, the trust concept needs enriching elements to be balanced towards a feeling of mutual reliance and support creativity instead; inclusions of bridging social capital, elements of distrust and a pioneering spirit are to be mentioned here.

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Zoltan VAJNA

LEAN Tools in the IT Sector

Nowadays the LEAN tools with their proven efficiency are indispensable parts of the production management. I think there is no producing enterprise that cannot utilize a wide variety of these LEAN tools. The question now is how these tools can support companies in increasing the efficiency of their supporting IT processes. In this study I will demonstrate how these well-known LEAN tools from production management can be used in IT management to create more cost-effective, efficient and transparent solutions during the IT system development and IT operation activities. I will show respectively without attempting to be comprehensive the most important tools of the LEAN management and I will analyse how these tools can be used in the IT sector. At the end of this study I will demonstrate what the IT managers think about the practical use of these tools.

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Samantha PRINSLOO Candice WALKER Lise BOTHA Juan-Pierré BRUWER Yolande SMIT

The Influence of Combined Assurance Initiatives on the Efficiency of Risk Management in Retail Small and Very Small Enterprises in Bellville, South Africa

According to the South African Small Business Act No. 102 of 1996 Small Medium and Micro Enterprises (SMMEs) are regarded as separate small business entities owned by one or more owners; operating in various sectors of the national economy. SMMEs play a significant role in contributing to the South African economy, particularly by means of providing employment opportunities and assisting in the equal distribution of wealth. Albeit the latter prior research reveals that 80% of SMMEs do not survive beyond their first five years of existence. Plausible reasons for the latter include the influence of micro-economic factors and macro-economic factors; resulting in direct, inevitable risks being placed on the overall existence of SMMEs. In order to identify and manage these risks, SMMEs need to make use of adequate risk management strategies. More often than not a risk management strategy should eliminate and/or mitigate risks and provide reasonable assurance that business objectives will...

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What Do Companies in the Processing Industry Do in Order to Achieve Success?

Borders of countries and continents have become more and more blurred by now, while distances have turned out to be less important. Markets of continents or countries are not separated anymore therefore competition between companies has gotten fiercer and much faster than earlier. What kind of instruments may companies in the processing industry use to maintain their existence and to remain competitive in the fragile system following the economic crisis in 2008? This research aims at finding out how the effects of components belonging to the concept of strategic management system influence outstanding achievement and success. It primarily analyses, in what ways instruments considered being the most determinative, i.e. strategic a structural success factors affect the processing industry. In order to do that the research defines the factors having an influence. Thereafter it explains successful operation of companies with factors emerging via the use of regression models. It uses the...

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Juan-Pierré BRUWER Yolande SMIT

Accounting Information Systems – A Value-Adding Phenomenon or a Mere Trend? The Situation in Small and Medium Financial Service Organizations in the Cape Metropolis

Small Medium and Micro Enterprises (SMMEs) are of grave importance to the South African economy as they are legally obliged to support in the alleviation of poverty, the diminution of unemployment and the equal dissemination of wealth throughout the country. Despite the importance of these entities, prior research suggests that these entities are not mainly sustainable as between 70% and 80% of South African SMMEs fail after being in operation for five years. More often than not the latter dispensation is believed to stem from the realization of risks which, in turn, is cultivated by the ineffective management of economic factors. Among the economic factors which have a direct influence on the existence of South African SMMEs is the effectiveness of accounting information system(s). Here it is argued that a small organization is more likely to attain sustainability if its accounting information system(s) provide relevant, reliable and recent information, to management, for better...

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Nicola ZECH

The Role of Stakeholder Relationship Management – Crisis Management Processes within the Hotel Industry in a Tourism Context

Rates of worldwide environmental, social, technological and other crises are perceived to be constantly increasing – if nothing else due to almost instant broadcasting by media and internet. The Tourism Industry is especially vulnerable to such crises as numerous Stakeholder Groups on the one hand and large numbers of travelers on the other hand are or might be affected. Therefore, Tourism Industry Stakeholder Groups claims regarding transparency can t be denied. This Research Paper focuses on Crisis Management processes from the aspect of the Hotel Industry in a Tourism Context considering a variety of Tourism Market Players. Theoretical foundations combined with empirical research reveal prerequisites, Status Quo as well as opportunities and challenges towards an integrated Crisis Management Model. Finally, key success factors for a Stakeholder Relationship Management based approach are introduced.

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