In Progress
Volume 12 Issue 1
July 2023
Volume 11 Issue 2
January 2023
Volume 11 Issue 1
August 2022
Volume 10 Issue 2
March 2022
Volume 10 Issue 1
December 2021
Volume 9 Issue 2
January 2021
Volume 9 Issue 1
December 2020
Volume 8 Issue 2
August 2020
Volume 8 Issue 1
December 2019
Volume 7 Issue 2
August 2019
Volume 7 Issue 1
December 2018
Volume 6 Issue 2
August 2018
Volume 6 Issue 1
December 2017
Volume 5 Issue 2
August 2017
Volume 5 Issue 1
December 2016
Volume 4 Issue 2
August 2016
Volume 4 Issue 1
December 2015
Volume 3 Issue 2
August 2015
Volume 3 Issue 1
December 2014
Volume 2 Issue 2
August 2014
Volume 2 Issue 1
December 2013
Volume 1 Issue 1
Jeremy MITONGA-MONGA Realeboga LEKWALO Mercy Tebogo BALOYI Phumelelo Syria MASHABELA Nancy Naome MOTHIBI Sinesipho NDZUKUMA Nyasha MAPIRA

Leadership Behaviours of Line Managers: Narratives of Followers at a South African Public Department

This study sought the narratives of followers on the leadership behaviours of line managers at a South African public department. The study used an exploratory qualitative research approach to explore the narratives of followers at the case South African public department. Data from ten participants who had worked for the South African public department for at least one year were gathered using face to face, semi-structured interviews. The study found that line managers at the South African public department behave both ethically and unethically. Ethical leadership behaviours identified by research participants include people oriented and role clarification. Conversely, dishonesty, nepotism, inconsistent behaviour and unfairness were identified by research participants as unethical leadership behaviours that are also common among managers at the case South African public department. Line managers at the case South African public department are generally encouraged to provide moral...

Read More
Cristina Elena POPA

The Risk of Deindustrialization of Germany

Germany has demonstrated throughout history that it can be reborn from its ashes, like the mythical phoenix bird. After two devastating world wars, the country had the ability, strength, and discipline to recover and become the undisputed leader of Europe. The advantages obtained by Germany in the last 20 years, such as ample trade, cheap energy and strong industry, made the country the strongest power in Europe and gave its political leaders a false sense of security and relaxation. In this article, I have identified several problems facing the German economy and I have emphasized the importance of taking urgent and radical measures to avoid a series of devastating long-term effects, including the risk of deindustrialization.

Read More
Sajida ABDOOL Roger MASON Mandusha MAHARAJ

Student Protests and the Brand Image of a South African University of Technology

Student protests, often violent, can damage perceptions about universities and harm brand images. This study investigated the effects of student protests on the brand image of a university of technology in South Africa. An e-mailed questionnaire provided a sample of 402 students selected via purposive, quota and convenience sampling at a prominent University of Technology in South Africa. Participation was voluntary, confidential, and anonymous. Data was captured and analysed using descriptive and inferential, univariate and bivariate, statistics. Findings showed that student protests did disrupt learning, affecting operations such as the academic calendar being shortened, delay in graduation and threats to completion of the syllabus. Protests have a negative impact on the University’s brand image, sometimes leading to students deregistering due to the unsafe environment. Suggestions are provided for universities to better cope with student protests and further research is recommended...

Read More
Dinko Herman BOIKANYO Godknows GOMWE

Influence of SMEs Electronic Human Resource Management on Organizational Performance

Regardless of the size of the organisation, electronic human resources management (e-HRM) systems are crucial because of their influence on risk reduction and prevention. The relationship between e-HRM and small and medium-sized organisations (SMEs) is, nevertheless, the subject of few studies. Although SMEs are essential for the nation's financial stability, they are thought to be less knowledgeable about e-HRM in developing nations. In order for SMEs to survive and have an impact on the economy of the nation, this conceptual paper seeks to provide a wider understanding of SME organisations. This study examines pertinent literature from the last ten years on the adoption of e-HRM, the awareness of SMEs organisations regarding the quality implementation of e-HRM systems, the survival of SMEs, and their effects on the national economy. A fundamental challenge is the widespread and persistent belief that only large firms can use e-HRM systems. This study found, based on the literature...

Read More
Juan-Pierré BRUWER

The Influence Internal Control Systems on Economic Sustainability: The Case of Fast-Moving Consumer Goods South African Small, Medium and Micro Enterprises

This study was conducted to determine the influence that internal control systems of South African (fast-moving consumer goods) SMMEs have on their economic sustainability. Both empirical research and, descriptive research were conducted that were of a quantitative nature. The study relied on survey research and primary data were collected from 99 South African fast-moving consumer goods SMME owners/managers using a mixture of non-probability sampling methods. From the research conducted, it was found that the internal control systems of South African SMMEs were developed using non-SMME-specific internal control frameworks. Even though the internal control systems of sampled South African SMMEs were perceived to be both adequate and effective by their owners/managers, they were found to adversely influence the economic sustainability of these business entities. This research study justifies the need for South African SMMEs to develop internal control systems using SMME-specific...

Read More

Influence of Brand Personality Traits and Identification on Perceived Bank Success: A Gendered View

The paper emphasizes the importance of banks developing a positive brand personality and fostering brand identification among customers to enhance customers’ perception of bank success. By consistently delivering on brand promises, engaging with customers, and building a sense of community, banks can strengthen their brand image, particularly among millennials. The study focused on millennial male and female customers in the banking context and conducted a self-administered survey with 110 males and 114 females. Employing various statistical methods, such as collinearity diagnostics, principal components analysis, and linear regression analysis, the research found that traits like perceived sophistication, sincerity, and ruggedness significantly influenced female millennial customers' perception of their bank's success. Similarly, the bank's sincerity and level of sophistication influenced the perceived success of male millennial customers. However, the study did not find a...

Read More
Roxana Elena POPȘA

Importance of Sustainability in the Hotel Industry

Hotel industry has been identified as one of the vital sectors that can have a major contribution to the achievement of the three pillars of sustainable development (social-economic-environment), thus having the ability to direct communities towards a green economy. With increasing environmental awareness, hotels are taking the initiative to offer greener products and services. Various green attributes are incorporated into hotels, such as participation in environmental partnerships or certification programs, use of recycling programs, energy-saving light bulbs in rooms. Under these circumstances, this paper aims to analyze the importance of hotel sustainability for the global development of the industry, while also presenting the most important sustainability and decarbonization topics among accommodation businesses and the reasons for which global travelers choose sustainable lodging.

Read More
Godknows GOMWE Dinko Herman BOIKANYO

Innovation and Intellectual Capital Competency Factors Influencing SMEs Competitive Advantage in South Africa. A Conceptual Framework

This paper examines the innovative intellectual capital variables of SMEs, such as business culture, knowledge intelligence, business communication, and digital business, using the intellectual capital theory as a frame of reference for SMEs in South Africa. The phenomenal rise of SMEs and a gap in the existing literature on innovative intellectual capital served as the driving forces behind this study. Lack of innovative skills brought on by low levels of intellectual capital are seen as the driving force behind this unwelcome phenomenon. This conceptual paper aims to bring a broader understanding innovative competencies which are crucial for businesses to sustain themselves, grow, and perform well SMEs will be helped in the development of platforms to enhance their operations and advance the South African economy. A detailed evaluation of secondary sources of information provided by the University of Johannesburg was used in this paper. This paper analyses the relevant...

Read More

Exploring Gender Pay Inequality: An Inquiry in a South African Mining Organisation

There is a paucity on academic studies on gender pay gap in the South African mining organisations. The current study focused on the effects of gender pay inequality on talent retention within the mining sector. This study was conducted through semi-structured interviews of women in a mining organisation. The interviews were conducted in a respectful way and within a safe environment in order for them to express their personal experiences and opinions on the gender-pay inequality. The findings revealed that many women in the company are aware of the existing inequalities and wage gaps between men and women. The findings show that gender segregation persists in the mines because women are considered weaker than men and are more vulnerable to violence in the mines. The findings of this study are relevant to both policy and practise. The findings shed light on the impact of the gender pay gap on talent retention in mining companies. The mining sector should review its pay policy and...

Read More

The Influence of Shopping Motivations on Clothing Retail Store Loyalty in South Africa

The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of shopping motivations on clothing retail store loyalty in the South African context. A survey was conducted among consumers intercepted at a mall in Venda, South Africa. In total, 250 respondents completed the questionnaire in full. It was found that consumers were influenced by shopping apathy, fashion trends, impressions, reputation, and price, in remaining loyal to a clothing store. Shopping enjoyment, role-shopping and convenience did not influence shoppers to remain loyal to a store. Consumer loyalty is vital to retailers, as it guarantees future sales, long-term profitability, and sustainability. Retail marketers should therefore consider various shopping motivations when designing their marketing activities.

Read More
Takupiwa NYANGA Tumo KELE Samson MTISI

Job Satisfaction of Backyard Manufacturing Small to Medium Enterprise Workers in Mucheke Suburb, Masvingo, Zimbabwe: Status and Way Forward

Job satisfaction is one of the key antecedents to organizational competitiveness and growth. The main objective of this paper was to explore the status of job satisfaction and strategies for increasing job satisfaction for backyard manufacturing small to medium enterprises (MSMEs) workers in Mucheke suburb in Masvingo urban. The study utilized a qualitative research approach with semi-structured interview being used as the main data collecting tool. Snowballing and purposive sampling techniques were used to select 11 backyard manufacturing SMEs and 40 participants who participated in the study. The study established that the level of job satisfaction for employees in backyard MSMEs was extremely low. The main precipitators of low job satisfaction were inappropriate tools, inadequate raw materials, inappropriate plant layout, unpaid overtime, failure to supply protective clothing, poor salaries, congested workstations and poor leadership. It was also established that low job...

Read More
Nkosinamandla Erasmus SHEZI

Validating Brand Personality Dimensions to South African Professional Sport Teams: A Study of Sharks and Lions Rugby Teams

Rugby is one of the most popular sports among the big three sports in South Africa. Rugby is formally represented by the Currie Cup as the domestic league in South Africa. The aim of this study is to validate the dimensions of brand personality to the South African professional rugby sport teams, namely Sharks and Lions. The two teams were selected because of higher level of team identification during the study. The study employed the quantitative research method. The results of this study produced four-factor structure which includes Trustworthiness, Competitiveness, Friendliness and Trendiness. Furthermore, monological and discriminant validity was confirmed. The model fit indices of measurement, SRMR, RMSEA, GFI, CFI, IFI and TLI were assessed and showed a good fit. Therefore, this instrument is confirmed as valid and reliable to measure the dimensions of professional rugby sport teams in South Africa. Team managers of professional rugby sport teams in South Africa, including all...

Read More
Foluso Philip ADEKANMBI Wilfred Isioma UKPERE

Perceived Graduates’ Employability in the 4IR Era: Assessing Predictors’ Impacts

This paper assesses the impacts of perceived proactive career behaviors (PCB), Work-integrated learning effectiveness (WILE), and abilities (AB) on perceived graduates’ employability (PGE) within Nigeria’s businesses in the 4IR era. The sample used in this study came from First City Monument Bank Plc, Isoglass Industries Nigeria Ltd, Honeywell Flour Mills Plc, CohoTek IT Solutions, and Freezeland Nigeria Limited. These are the five examined businesses. They belong to the manufacturing, sales, information technology, and finance sectors. The cross-sectional questionnaire approach was used in this study, and surveys were distributed at random. Nonetheless, 486 of the 500 distributed surveys were located, deemed suitable for use, and subjected to Statistical Packages for Social Sciences analysis (SPSS version 28). This study indicated a considerable individual and collective impact of perceived proactive career behaviors, Work-integrated learning effectiveness, and abilities on perceived...

Read More

Exploring Commitment-related Experiences of Black South African Managers

This study explores the commitment-related experiences of Black South African managers at a construction company in South Africa. Twelve Black South African managers working at a construction company in South Africa participated in this exploratory qualitative study. Face-to-face semi-structured interviews were used to collect data from the participants. The study found that a majority of Black South African managers experienced positive commitment, inducing them to be psychologically attached to the construction company in South Africa. The study also found that some Black South African managers had bad committed-related experiences due to a lack of worker recognition, issues with involvement, reward system, isolation, and social identity. This study suggests that the case construction company in South Africa should consider employee recognition, worker involvement and use a fair and consistent reward system for all workers, regardless of colour, to strengthen the commitment of Black...

Read More

Does Record-Keeping Matter in Small Businesses?

Records are a fundamental aspect of organizations and must be maintained. This study investigated the essence of record-keeping from the perspectives of small business owners on their operations. This was a cross-sectional survey which used the questionnaire to solicit information from the business owners. The data analysis was descriptive statistics with the aid of Minitab 17 software. Our findings attest to the relevance of business registration and the prominence of the family business in small businesses. It was revealed that 89% of the respondents were conscious of keeping records, 74% recording their business operations manually while retention of records for a year had 77% representation. The benefits of recordkeeping hinge on decision-making and stock-taking. The study concludes that small businesses should not look down on record-keeping as part of running their businesses and suggests education on the importance of record-keeping for small business owners for the effective...

Read More
Stephanus Johannes ROOS Re-an MÜLLER

Managing the Personal Brand of Professional Golfers: Strategies for Success

Personal branding is essential for athletes and in particular professional golfers. Professional golfers employ various experts such as sport psychologists, fitness trainers and specialist coaches in order to improve their performance. As a result, this has significant financial implications for players and having an established personal brand may assist them in gaining sponsorships. However, there is a lack of research in the South African context regarding the personal branding of professional golfers. To address this research gap, the present study aimed to explore the importance of personal branding for professional golfers and identify the strategies that can be implemented to enhance their personal brand. The study participants comprised of Professional Golfers of South Africa (PGA of SA) members, teaching professionals, and golf administrators, who were interviewed using a semi-structured approach. The findings of the study confirmed that personal branding is a crucial factor...

Read More
Nyasha MAPIRA Jeremy MITONGA-MONGA Wilfred Isioma UKPERE

Forced or by Choice? Motives for Accepting Casual Work

The study sought to explore reasons why workers accept casual work at a transnational manufacturing firm in Zimbabwe. An exploratory qualitative study was undertaken with sixteen casual workers at a transnational manufacturing firm in Zimbabwe. Information was gathered from the research participants, using semi-structured interviews. The study found that a majority of these research participants were forced by unfavourable circumstances to settle for casual work. The stepping-stone to permanent position hypothesis and limited permanent position opportunities were involuntary motives that forced workers to accept casual work. The study also found that a few participants voluntarily accepted casual work at the case transnational manufacturing firm in Zimbabwe. Voluntary motives included: need to balance work and family responsibilities; self-development; and economic incentives. Given the rise in demand for casual employment, it is crucial to comprehend the underlying reasons why...

Read More

Using Internal Controls Systems for Small and Medium Enterprise Sustainability in a Developing Nation

Internal control systems are an essential component of every organisation, as they are known for their impact on prevention and risk mitigation. However, limited studies examine the nexus between internal control systems and small and medium enterprises (SMEs). Although SMEs play a crucial role in enabling the country’s financial stability, SME owners and managers in developing countries are perceived to lack knowledge of internal control systems. This conceptual paper aims to bring a broader understanding of SME leaders and managers on knowledge of implementation of quality internal controls systems towards SMEs’ survival and impact on the country’s economy. This paper analyses the relevant literature on internal controls’ implementation, the knowledge of SME leaders and owners on quality implementation of internal control systems, SMEs’ survival and impact on the economy of the country. An existing and persisting perception that internal control systems can only be implemented by...

Read More
Nyasha MAPIRA Jeremy MITONGA-MONGA Wilfred Isioma UKPERE

Moonlighting: A Reality to Improve the Lived Experiences of Casual Workers

This paper explores the effectiveness of moonlighting to improve the experiences of casual workers at a transnational manufacturing firm in Zimbabwe. Eight individuals, who varied in terms of gender, position held, age, and educational qualifications, participated in an exploratory qualitative study. Data was gathered on the effectiveness of moonlighting to enhance the daily experiences of casual workers, using semi-structured interviews. The study found that the majority of casual employees benefit from moonlighting by learning new skills that promote occupational mobility, enhance financial stability, and lessen job insecurity. Conversely, the study also found that moonlighting has detrimental effect on casual workers' ability to balance their professional and personal lives, leads to overworking, and increases stress related to their jobs. The study recommends that to avoid any conflicts of interest between primary employment and a secondary job, organisations should govern and...

Read More
Omotosho Ademola OLUMUYIWA Mathew Kimweli KIMANZI Alfred MODISE

Developing Enterprising Graduates in the Fourth Industrial Revolution: Implications for South African Higher Education Institutions

Due to the global prevalence of youth unemployment and the increased demand for enterprising graduates, university-based entrepreneurship education which began several decades ago in the United States is now widely acknowledged and popular in many nations. Accordingly, the pressure created by the pandemic era also necessitates that universities produce graduates who are well-equipped with the essential skills and competencies needed to address current and future challenges. This study employs the use of systematic analysis of literature to explore the common elements that exist in some of the world's most successful entrepreneurial training models. The authors specifically reviewed a number of successful entrepreneurial training strategies from top-tier higher education institutions from 5 countries across 3 continents. The analysed training models differ in their designs. However, despite these variances, certain commonalities such as the use of live projects and the apprenticeship...

Read More
Mokheseng MAKHETHA Tumo KELE

Third-Party Logistics Businesses and Social Sustainability Practices: The Case of South Africa

Despite the increasing awareness of sustainability and Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) by companies, the social aspects and practices thereof are often neglected. The social sustainability reporting by South African logistics companies is such an example and is largely unknown. The objectives of this study were to investigate the challenges that South African road logistics companies face when reporting their social sustainability performance and to determine measures that road logistics companies in South Africa can take to improve their social sustainability reporting. This was achieved qualitatively by means of semi-structured interviews of representatives of 18 large and medium sized road logistics companies in South Africa. The interview data was analysed using thematic analysis process. The study revealed some key findings that were not previously indicated in the literature review, particularly looking at social sustainability activities by road logistics companies and...

Read More

The Dynamics of the New and Open Regionalism and Economic Integration in Asia and the Pacific Regions

The purpose of the study reviewed the dynamics of new and open regionalism in Asia and the Pacific regions. It was highlighted that both in the Asia Pacific and Latin America, there is considerable confusion and ambiguity surrounding the notion of what “New Open Regionalism” is all about, which questions the relevance for practical purposes. The research approach primarily reviews various relevant literature in the field of study. Studies indicated that with few institutional or government-led initiatives, Asia's rapid economic expansion offered a strong basis for intra-regional trading and investment flows as well as inter-firm linkages. In terms of originality, No study has looked at the dynamics and the many uses and conceptions of the idea and investigated the contexts in which the concepts of "openness" and "regionalism" clash. For the implications, the article clarifies the possible relationship with both open regionalism and regional integration before asking under what...

Read More
Martha W. MWANGI Mercy Florah OLUOCH

Recruitment Practices, Knowledge Management, Human Capital and Organisational Performance: A Critical Literature Review

Regarding an institution’s labor as utility management, the employment protocols embody the extensive recruitment plans and further reflects the initial phase of the labor management in alignment with attaining the institutional objectives. Universally, they are viewed to be the most challenging although critical aspect of every labor management plans. This study sought to document the empirical and theoretical literature on employee recruitment practices, knowledge management, human capital, and organizational performance. The theories that guided this study included the Vrooms Expectancy theory, Human Capital theory, and Equity Theory. The study’s conceptual model comprises of employee recruitment practices and organizational performance as the independent and dependent variables respectively, while knowledge management and human capital were incorporated as mediating variables. This study reflects literature review research whose focus was a deeper analysis of the existing basic...

Read More
Nkosinamandla Erasmus SHEZI Ephrem Habtemichael REDDA

Factors that Contribute towards Sports Footwear Satisfaction in South Africa

The sports footwear sector is a lucrative market, particularly among Generation Y consumers. The aim of this research is to determine the factors that influence the customer satisfaction level of sports footwear brands among South African Generation Y. The study used a quantitative research method and followed a descriptive research design. Six of the nine independent variables, namely brand association, perceived quality, style, comfort, brand name and price, were found to have a statistically significant impact on Generation Y consumers’ satisfaction levels with sports footwear brands, while three of the nine variables, namely brand image, colour and endorsement, produced an insignificant impact on customer satisfaction levels of the same age cohort. Marketers of the sports footwear brands that were not identified as favourite brands in the study are advised to evaluate their marketing strategies and manufacturing processes. Those sports brands identified as favoured brands by...

Read More
Trisnawati TASWIN E. Susy SUHENDRA

The Influence of the Financial Health Indicators towards the Financial Distress with Risk Level Moderation: Empirical Study on Life Insurance Companies in Indonesia

In Indonesia, the life insurance industry has experienced a positive growth in the 2015-2019 timeframe, although there were certain incidents in which several insurance companies had experienced several failures, including the large-scale national companies. This research was conducted to analyze the effect of solvability, liquidity, risk level, investment adequacy, and equity, either partially or simultaneously on financial distress in life insurance companies in Indonesia. In addition, this study was conducted to analyze the risk level as a moderating variable for the relationship among solvability, liquidity, investment adequacy, equity, and financial distress. The research was carried out by using the data in life insurance company industry in Indonesia which was registered into the Indonesia’s Financial Services Authority in 2015 – 2019, while the used data analysis technique was Panel Data Regression. The results showed that the independent variables namely: solvability...

Read More
Zama GAMEDE Matolwandile MTOTYWA

Leveraging the Internet of Things to Enhance Employee Productivity in Operations: A Conceptualization

Technological advancements and environmental turbulences require firms to continuously reconfigure their operational models by rapidly transforming the workplace. This study explores how the Internet of Things (IoT) can improve employees’ productivity in operations. This conceptualization paper highlights five determinants of employee productivity: learning orientation, problem-solving, acquisition of knowledge, and monitoring and evaluation. The developed conceptual model has a three-phased approach to optimizing the impact of the internet of things with Bayesian classification. This is critical to effectively leverage improvement in employee productivity, profile deviation analysis and to predict the effectiveness of interventions. This study provides vital insights into leveraging the IoT during the fourth industrial revolution, offering the needed continuous development of employee productivity to help with the survival and stability of firms. This will assist the management of a...

Read More
Foluso Philip ADEKANMBI Wilfred Isioma UKPERE

Sustaining Employee Performance: Evaluating Predictors’ Effects in the Post-Covid-19 Era

This paper evaluates the impacts of perceived despotic leadership (DL), quality of work-life (QWL), and innovative work behavior (IWB) on employee performance (EP) in Nigeria’s banks post-Covid-19. The sample for this study was obtained from five (5) banks in Lagos and Oyo States, Nigeria. These five (5) banks are Zenith Bank Plc, Guarantee Trust Bank Plc, First City Monument Bank Limited, United Bank for Africa Plc, and First Bank of Nigeria Plc. This study implemented a cross-sectional questionnaire method, and surveys were randomly distributed. Nevertheless, from the 400 surveys distributed, 388 were retrieved, concluded adequate for use, and analyzed using Statistical Packages for Social Sciences (SPSS version 28). This study indicated a substantial relationship between perceived DL, QWL, and innovative work behavior. It further stated the considerable individual and collective impact of perceived DL, QWL, and IWB on EP within Nigeria’s banks post-Covid-19. Leaders and managers of...

Read More
Andrew ENAIFOGHE Makhosazana Faith VEZI-MAGIGABA

Re-Thinking the Sustainability of Local Economic Development through Entrepreneurship in South Africa

The objective of this paper was to explore the sustainability of local economic development through entrepreneurship in South Africa. Local economic development (LED) should be the responsibility of everyone, including local people, business owners, and the government. LED is widely seen as the panacea to increased quality of life, unemployment, poverty, and inequalities, mainly in developing nations. LED research is a relatively new topic, and policy development, planning processes, and implementation plans are continually changing with numerous alternative ideas and techniques. The study acknowledged South Africa to be a resource-rich country with incredible development potential. South Africa, on the other hand, can do a lot better to encourage entrepreneurs and small and medium-scale businesses at the grassroots level, by preparing citizens with the needed skills to contribute to economic development because effective leadership, institutions, and entrepreneurship all play...

Read More

Increasing Students’ Entrepreneurial Intention Using Internal and External Factors through Entrepreneurial Self-Efficacy

Entrepreneurship is one of the most important drivers in a country's economic growth in which it contributes to the reduction of unemployment rate. This explains why various institutions have been leveraging resources at their disposal to boost the entrepreneurial intention of students across the country. This research aims to investigate the effect of family environment and entrepreneurship education through entrepreneurial self-efficacy towards students’ entrepreneurial intention. This study took on a quantitative approach, where the data obtained from surveys are evaluated statistically using the SmartPLS software. The researcher has taken 215 samples from a population of 458 students in 2018 cohort, majoring in International Business Management of Universitas Ciputra Surabaya, using the simple random sampling method. The findings suggest that there is a positive and significant direct relationship between family environment and entrepreneurial intention, entrepreneurship education...

Read More
Ifta Firdausa NUZULA Lili WAHYUDI

The Influence of Perceived Risk, Perceived Quality, Brand Attitude, and E-WoM on Purchase Intention

This study develops a model from primary needs that develop into existence through luxury consumption in the era of globalization. Besides that, it is vital to find out the involvement in using luxury products encouraging consumer existence on social media, especially during the COVID-19 pandemic. The development of e-commerce and access to luxury products enables people’s purchase intentions. It creates a community in the use of luxury one. This study aims to determine the factors that influence purchase intention of luxury products. The data analyzed using PLS-SEM. Convenience sampling was used to gather response of 381 respondents. Results show that perceived quality, brand attitude and E-WoM had a significant positive relationship with purchase intention. However, perceived risk does not have a substantial effect on purchase intention.

Read More

Effectiveness Analysis of the Employee Work Performance Assessment System – A Critical Three-Component Approach

Performance assessment is useful for employees in terms of providing information for promotion decision making, employee training, and violation sanctions. Managers can use the results of performance evaluation as strategies to motivate and improve employees’ performance. To implement performance assessments that can provide accurate information, an effective support system is needed. The phenomenon that occurs in the public sector is that employees consider performance assessments only as a formality, managers and employees do not understand how to fill out performance assessments and lack commitment to implement performance assessments. Based on these phenomena, the study aims to analyze the effectiveness of performance assessment systems by using a critical approach to performance assessment: performance system design, managerial system practice and system support. The research method used is of a qualitative descriptive nature that aimed to describe the effectiveness of a...

Read More

Teachers’ Innovative Behaviors based on Stakeholder Expectations

Competition between schools requires many private schools to always innovate in learning. Teachers as the spearhead in the learning process in schools are highly expected by stakeholders to develop these innovative behaviors. Based on the teacher’s perspective, those who act as stakeholders are school leaders and also students or their parents as school customers. The purpose of this study is to examine the role of leader expectations and customer expectations on the innovative behavior of teachers in schools. The respondents of this study were 127 private school teachers on the island of Java – Indonesia which had many competing private schools. The results of the multiple regression test indicate that there is an effect of stakeholder expectations on teacher’s innovative behavior with an effective contribution of 25.4%. However, based on the results, it is actually only the customer expectation that plays a role in increasing the innovative behavior of teachers. The results of this...

Read More
Ika Nurul QAMARI Nandrianina Louis Pierre RAKOTOARIZAKA NURYAKIN

Impact of Electronic Human Resource Management toward Excellent Service – A Bibliometric Review

This article examines the literature on the "Impact of Electronic Human Resource Management" published in several prestigious research journals during the last nine years. This paper seeks to guide further studies in this field, provide an overview of previous research, and identify pertinent research gaps in the subfield of electronic human resource management. The researcher used Scopus data to analyze the research publications for the chosen topic. The papers selected for this article were published within the last nine years (2013–2021). Most of the research papers analyzed found that organizations can benefit from the significance of e-HRM in aspects of cost efficiency and time-efficient both for organizational and individual levels. Furthermore, this technology facilitates corporate operations and improves information and organizational performance. The purpose of this paper is to encourage the cornerstone for future research in this field. Most of those papers addressed the...

Read More
Akinlawon Olubukunmi AMOO Jamila Khatoon ADAM

The Impact of Supervisor Support, Performance Feedback and Workload on the Engagement of TVET Lecturers in Gauteng, South Africa

Employee engagement revolves around “job involvement, organisation commitment and job satisfaction”. Research has shown that many organisations fail in promoting employee engagement and as a result pay dearly for disengagement. The purpose of this paper is to explore what antecedents of engagement drive TVET college lecturers to be engaged with the outcomes of an organisation, in order to identify further strategies that organisations can implement to improve engagement. This study was part of a larger interdisciplinary research project in which a cross-sectional design with a survey data-collection technique was used. Five variables were considered with 6 hypotheses. Results indicate that supervisor support, performance feedback and adequate workload are important for job engagement among lecturers within the TVET sector, while performance feedback and adequate workload are both important for organisation engagement. Based on these findings, this study recommends the involvement of...

Read More

Staff Knowledge on Records Management in the Local Governments of Ghana: A Case Study

Good records management should be seen as a benefit and not a burden. This paper explores the practices, benefits, and challenges of records management from forty-five staff of the Offinso Municipal Assembly (OMA), Ghana. The study used the survey method and data were analyzed with descriptive and inferential statistics. The result revealed that a majority (84%) of the staff knew of the existence of policies and procedures on records management, there was a positive strong association between work experience and records management systems, quick decision making was a key element of the benefits of records management and lack of information technology infrastructure was a challenge to effective records management. The paper suggests that OMA must intensify the need to communicate the importance of the policies and procedures of records management for its compliance. In maximizing the benefits of records management, OMA must take advantage of technology to support their records...

Read More
Juan-Pierré BRUWER Judith SMITH

The Sustainability of Newly Established Business Entities: The Sustenance Framework

Small businesses are often described as the lifeblood of economies around the globe. This is mainly due to small business’ significant socio-economic value-adding abilities. These entities significantly contribute to national Gross Domestic Products, while both disseminating wealth and alleviating poverty through the creation of employment opportunities. Research suggests that small businesses have high failure rates - most failing after operating for between three and five years. Instead of emphasising particular reasons why small businesses fail, the emphasis was placed on two theories, namely the liability of newness (specifically that small businesses have little to no reputation when they are newly established) and the neo-institutional theory (specifically that small businesses tend to imitate “best practices” of established businesses, as-is, without considering customized solutions using a “trial-and-error” approach). In particular, the primary objective of this paper was to...

Read More

Personalization – A Key Element in Creating Better Customer Experiences

The personalization of the way of communication, but also of the products and services is a tendency that is being discussed more and more and at the level of all companies. The nature and characteristics of services make the process of buying more complicated compared to goods due to the complexity and interaction between the companies and customers – here is where personalization can make a difference. Viewed from the perspective of opportunities, the consumer-company relationship determines an advantageous aspect for service companies, namely the adoption of personalized processes along the relationship between the two, creating greater consumer satisfaction and a lesson for companies in improving the services offered.

Read More
Eric VAN ZYL Teneille VENTER Juan-Pierré BRUWER

The Catalysed Use of Fourth Industrial Revolution Interventions in South African Higher Education Institutions, due to COVID-19, and its Influence on Efficacy

COVID-19 has brought about significant change in a global dispensation. One of these changes is the catalysed use of fourth industrial revolution interventions 4IRI. In South Africa, among the industries that have been influenced by the catalysed use of 4IRI is that of the Higher Education industry. Apart from the fact that South African Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) were restructured during the mid-2000s (e.g. Technikons transforming to Universities of Technology), most curricula and/or teaching practices are still outdated; do not accommodate for the development of 21st-century skills. To this end, this study was conducted to theoretically investigate whether the catalysed use of 4IRI, as brought on by COVID-19, influenced the efficacy of South African HEIs. This study was exploratory in nature and constituted online desktop research. Stemming from the research conducted, it appears that the catalysed use of 4IRI in South African HEIs may not have any influence on its...

Read More

Investigating Forms of Capital as Alternative Loan Assessment for E-Entrepreneurs

Micro and small enterprise development are crucial to support a country’s economy, and microfinance is vital to support its growth. Currently, the microfinance industry is faced with two main challenges: to reduce credit risk and to avoid losing sight of its social purpose. The study argues that this is a matter of vicious circle that can be broken using a practical credit application evaluation. The research purpose is to investigate an alternative method for credit application assessment using one of classic sociological theory, the three forms of capital, consisting of economic capital, social capital, and cultural capital. A survey of 100 e-entrepreneurs operating in e-commerce revealed that only two of the three capitals affect the credit potential variable. The uniqueness of the study is in the utilization of alternative behavioral data, including social media activity, informal training, and religiosity to measure the credit potential of a respondent. The study’s results...

Read More
Gavin Ashley CHAPMAN

Anticipating the Impact of Disruptive Technologies on SMEs in Kwazulu-Natal: A Case Study

This article investigates a range of disruptive technologies which have been identified as being disruptive or potentially disruptive to the current SME business models. By not being cognizant of the possible effect that these modern technologies may have on a variety of business sectors, SMEs run the risk of either losing business opportunities or not being able to participate in new business ventures in future so the competitive edge is lost. The impact of disruptive technologies is rapidly gaining momentum on a world-wide scale. Three complimentary disruptive technologies, associated with the 4th Industrial Revolution (4IR) have been selected for this study viz. Big Data, Internet of Things (IoT), and Artificial Intelligence (AI). A single case study following the qualitative method was considered suitable to explore, probe and gain a clear understanding from a SME perspective, whether these three disruptive technologies have the potential to influence the business either...

Read More
Insiwijati PRASETYANINGSIH Jessycka Veronika FURE

Effect of Good Corporate Governance on Wealth Added Index for Companies from Indonesia Stock Exchange

The purpose of this study is to determine the effect of Good Corporate Governance (GCG) on the Wealth Added Index (WAI) which is known as a wealth creator. Good Corporate Governance is measured by the number of directors, number of commissioners, number of audit committees, and managerial ownership of the Company's WAI. GCG data was obtained from the Indonesia Stock Exchange (IDX) publication for public companies in 2017 - 2019, while WAI represented survey data from SWA magazine for 4 consecutive years. The analysis used in this study was based on a multiple regression. From the results of this study, it was found that the GCG had an effect on WAI related to the number of directors, the number of audit committees, the share ownership ratio and the number of commissioners had a significant effect as a whole. Partially, the number of directors, the number of audit committees, and the number of managerial ownership have a significant effect, but the relationship considering the number...

Read More
Annelie THOR Patrick SIEGFRIED

Reasons and Potential Solution Approaches for the Shortage of Nursing Staff in German Hospitals

The aim of this scientific paper was to find out the reasons for the shortage of nursing staff in German hospitals and to provide potential solution approaches for this shortage. Over the last years, the shortage of nursing staff has become a more and more important topic in the news: Not only due to the increasing amount of missing nurses, but also due to the ageing population in Germany, which leads to an increasing amount of patients in German hospitals. To reach this aim two surveys were done, of which one was for nursing staff only and the other one was for people from all occupational groups with the intention of creating comparative values. The surveys were done from March to April 2019 and were analysed afterwards. After a detailed analysis of the survey results, it can be summarized that the reasons for the shortage of nursing staff in German hospitals are very diverse: Starting with a weak salary, improvable working conditions – for example the shift work and the high amount...

Read More
Martha HARUNAVAMWE Rosebud Bekithemba MNQAYI

Exploring the Effect of Continuous Professional Development (CPD) Programs on Employee Performance at Company A in Empangeni, KwaZulu-Natal

Emergency Management Services (EMS) personnel, particularly paramedics, should have crucial clinical decision-making abilities, by developing field or differential diagnoses and impressions. This enables them to make critical decisions pertaining to patient management plans and care. Paramedics among other healthcare professionals are concerned with declining employee performance. There is therefore a need for performance improvement that is dependent on how employees realize continuous professional development (CPD) activities. This study focused on revealing the effect of CPD programs on employee performance at Company A in KwaZulu-Natal. A sample of 10 participants was drawn from the population of Emergency Care Providers working at Company A. A qualitative research methodology was adopted with the employment of purposive non-probability sampling and semi-structured interviews. The study concluded that CPD programs have a very positive effect on the performance of employees, as...

Read More

Relationship between Social Media, Organizational Support, Subjective Norms and Perceived Behavioral Control to Form Entrepreneurial Intention

Entrepreneurship is the key to innovation and economic growth, both for developed industrial countries and developing countries. Currently, in Indonesia there is growing awareness of the importance of the role of entrepreneurship in national development. On the other hand, advances in information technology, especially the internet, have made it possible for many people to connect to virtual communities in a network without borders. The main purpose of this research is to test research a model that forms Entrepreneurial Intention. Based on the survey method and purposive random sampling as a sampling technique, a research model testing using structural equation modelling proves that Social Media Usage has a positive and significant effect on Subjective Norms, but has no effect on Entrepreneurial Intention; while the Organizational Support has a positive and significant effect on Subjective Norms and Perceived Behavioral Control. Then, Subjective Norm and Perceived Behavioral Control...

Read More
Juan-Pierré BRUWER

Fortifying South African Small Medium and Micro Enterprise Sustainability through a Proposed Internal Control Framework: The Sustenance Framework

During the mid-1990s the South African government formally recognised Small, Medium and Micro Enterprises (SMMEs) operating in the country, for the first time, through the publication of the National Small Business Act No. 102 of 1996. Through this legislation, South African SMMEs were tasked to assist with the attainment of three core socio-economic objectives, namely the reduction of unemployment, the mitigation of poverty and the equal distribution of wealth. After more than two decades it appears that South African SMMEs are not achieving the foregoing three socio-economic objectives; simultaneously being cited as having among the worst failure rates in the world. Prior research found that this dispensation is largely attributable to the non-management of economic factors which, in turn, led to the realisation of risks. To assist with the management of economic factors and related risks, a sound system of internal control should be used. Unfortunately, despite the existence of...

Read More

Corporate Strategy, Networking and Firm Performance in Africa

Modern global business environment has experienced a paradigm shift from Multi-polarity to Multilateralism, hence forcing companies in Africa to pay more attention on emerging networks in an endeavor to architect strategies for improved performance. These changes include implementation of enterprise strategies and inter-organization alliances and networks, which allows for healthy competition and enterprise performance in both private and public ventures. However, there exists a marked lack of appreciation of the vital linkages of corporate strategy, networking and corporate performance. This article surveys literature on major efforts undertaken by organizations and nations to establish a relevant conceptual framework and methodology in a detailed view point. A synopsis of related literature and past studies in this area have linked networking with performance but with scantly researched proof on the connections between strategy, partnerships and triumph in organizational performance...

Read More

The Effect of Regulation and Collaboration on Financial Literacy and Financial Technology Adoption

The purpose of the study is to determine the effect of regulation, collaboration, and financial literacy on the adoption of financial technology for Small and Medium Enterprises. This research was conducted with a causal design to analyze the relationship between regulatory variables, collaboration, financial literacy, and adoption of financial technology through hypothesis testing. Research sample of 95 small and medium-sized businesses in East Java, Indonesia. The sampling method uses purposive sampling with the following criteria: (1) Having a minimum of 5 employees and a maximum of 99 employees; (2) Businesses that run using financial technology applications, namely OVO, GoPay, DANA, or LINK; (3) Businesses are carried out in the East Java region. This research uses Partial Least Square (PLS) analysis technique. Results show that regulation has a significant effect on financial literacy. Collaboration has a significant effect on financial literacy. Financial literacy has no...

Read More

The Influence of Competence Management on Human Resources Policies: Tunisian Context

This research aimed to study the influence of competence management on human resources policies, i.e., recruitment, assessment, training, remuneration, and career management. To this end, an empirical study was conducted via a questionnaire among 124 Tunisian companies. We tested the research hypotheses through linear regression analysis. The results confirm that competence management has a positive influence on human resources policies. The present work provides managers with a useful measurement instrument that can be used in examining human resource policies in their companies to upgrade and improve their employees’ competencies.

Read More
Ashwin PETERSEN Juan-Pierré BRUWER Roger MASON

Source Document Usage and the Financial Sustainability of South African Small, Medium and Micro Retailers

In South Africa, small, medium and micro enterprises (SMMEs) add significant socio-economic value to the national economy and are regarded as the driving force for economic growth. Prior research shows that these business entities’ sustainability leaves much to be desired as approximately 80% of South African SMMEs fail after being in operation for only three years; believed to be caused mostly by unmanaged economic factors. Although unmanaged economic factors may culminate in risks which adversely affect the sustainability of South African SMMEs, internal control activities can be used to mitigate the probability and potential impact of such risks. One of the most cost-effective internal control activities is that of document usage and design (e.g. source documents and internal documents). For this study, the primary objective was to determine the influence of source document usage, as an internal control measure, on the sustainability of South African small, medium and micro retail...

Read More
Olive Kamene Ndeveni TINDIKA Kenneth Lawrence WANJAU George Mbugua KARIUKI Joseph MUCHIRI

Moderating Role of Environmental Dynamism on the Relationship between Opportunity Evaluation and Growth of NGOs in Kenya

This study explored the moderating role of Environmental Dynamism (ED) on the relationship between opportunity evaluation and growth of agro-based Non-Governmental Organisations (NGOs) in Kenya. These NGOs play a critical role which includes poverty reduction, through employment creation and food security and therefore their growth is fundamental in continuing to serve the society. Agro-based NGOs in Kenya, operating in dynamic business environments face greater levels of unpredictability and turbulence than those in more stable business environments. The need to link opportunity evaluation and growth is very important for organisations to attain growth. To better understand this relationship, this paper employed a mixed method approach guided by cross-sectional research design. Quantitative and qualitative techniques were employed to analyse the data from 124 agro-based NGOs in Kenya using SPSS version 21 and AMOS graphic analytical software. Structural Equation Model (SEM) was used...

Read More

The Factors of Delegation Success: Accountability, Compliance and Work Quality

Delegation is an enabler in organisations, yet managers still struggle with how to use it effectively to get maximum value. There are many definitions of delegation and what it tries to achieve; at the heart of it, delegation is about giving power and authority to work on assigned tasks. It deals with how power should be handed over for delegated tasks to be completed successfully. Since there are no guarantees that delegated tasks will be delivered as expected and on time, there is a need to understand the success factors of delegation. The research is about the success factors of delegation by looking at accountability, quality and compliance. The research goes further and looks at the foundational elements of delegation to make it work which include competencies, skills, attitude an aptitude. It analyses the impact of leadership in delegation by assessing the leadership style(s) that support delegation. Alignment is key in delegation and the research looks at the relationship...

Read More

Leadership Commitment in Transparency Management of Public Information in Pemalang District, Indonesia

The leader’s commitment in realizing transparency of public information is one of the key parts of good governance. The Indonesian Government issued ACT No. 14 in 2008 which was focused on Public Information Disclosure (KIP ACT) to encourage transparency by involving the public in every government policy. The government of Pemalang District, in executing the mandate of KIP ACT, was designated by the Ministry of Communication and Information Technology (Diskominfo) to have an Office of Information Management and Documentation (PPID) responsible of storage, documentation, provision, and service information. This research is using secondary data research to explore these issues. The results showed that the leader’s commitment in transparency of public information in Pemalang District has not been applied effectively because the leader has not exercised his duties and functions by following the Standard Operational Procedure of PPID. More specifically, certain guidelines on the drafting...

Read More
Heru KRISTANTO Radhitya Wisnhu PRATAMA

Effects of the Neuroticism and Agreeableness Personality Types on Entrepreneurial Intention with Subjective Norm as Moderator

This study aims to examine the influence of the personality types of the neuroticism and agreeableness personality on entrepreneurial intentions with subjective norms as a moderator. This research was conducted through a survey method with a sample of 149 participants, residents of Tegalyoso Village, Klaten Utara District, Klaten Regency, Central Java Province, from the Republic of Indonesia. The results of this study indicate that 2 personality types of The Big Five are valid and reliable, namely agreeableness and neuroticism. Both personality types have a significant influence on entrepreneurial intentions. Subjective norms only have an interaction effect on the influence of neuroticism on entrepreneurial intentions.

Read More

Success Factors of Big Data to Achieve Organisational Performance: Qualitative Research

This part of the study continues the literature review conducted, and empirically addresses the research questions raised, in the preceding part of the study: Success factors of big data to achieve organisational performance: Theoretical perspectives. Overall, the focus is on the success factors of big data from an organizational context: how and when big data analytics capabilities yield benefits and improve organisational performance. The research questions that were addressed are: 1. What is the general understanding of big data and its current situation? 2. What capabilities are required in order to be successful at translating big data insights into organisational performance? 3. What are the biggest challenges/ risks to converting big data insights into organisational performance? The methodology was qualitative and exploratory, using semi-structured interviews to have in-depth discussions with big data employees at varying job levels to ascertain the success factors and...

Read More

Success Factors of Big Data to Achieve Organisational Performance: Theoretical Perspectives

Organisations have found an increase in the complexity of their information environments and emerging from this is the concept of “Big Data”, which is considered a breakthrough technological development in both business and academia. Hypothetically, superior big data analytics capability provide organisations with a competitive advantage and is therefore important to develop. This part of the study conducts a comprehensive literature review, with a focus on the success factors of big data from an organizational context: how and when big data analytics capabilities yield benefits and improve organisational performance. It concludes with the following research questions: 1. What is the general understanding of big data and its current situation? 2. What capabilities are required in order to be successful at translating big data insights into organisational performance? 3. What are the biggest challenges/ risks to converting big data insights into organisational performance?

Read More
Juan-Pierré BRUWER Houdini FOURIE Tracy BECK

Considering the Control Legacy-K (CLK) Framework to Serve as a Basis for a Measuring Instrument to Assess the Control Environment of Non-JSE Listed Business Entities

A sound system of internal control is a necessity for business entities; comprising five inter-related elements. The soundness of such a system is influenced by the control environment; often described as the foundation of any system of internal control. According to guidance documents, the definition and the description of the control environment are known however a common approach to assess the control environment of business entities mostly pertain to a quantitative “tick and bash” checklist. Such a yes-no-predicament causes a paradox regarding the axiom that one can only manage what one can measure. By referring to a recently developed internal control framework – the Control Legacy-K (CLK) Framework – the probability exists that the control environment of non-JSE listed business entities can be assessed in both a quantitative and qualitative manner. To this end, the primary objective of this study was to investigate whether the CLK Framework, particularly its first two steps...

Read More
Ioana GUTU

Multinational Companies and the Management of Corporate Diplomacy

This article examines the influence of multinational (MNC) and transnational (TNC) activity over the corporate and business diplomacy practice, according to the industry type, the development extent of each corporation, and the degree of corporate power decentralization. The methodology used in the research papers analyzed included literature review, case studies and qualitative data collection based on interviews with managers from the international corporate environment. Research shows that in practice, there is a confusion in regard with significance of business and corporate diplomacy expressions and their activities extent. This view is also shared by literature, since the association of the terms diplomacy and corporate activities would have more meaning into a philanthropic context, compared to international business. By studying the different managerial actions of multinational and transnational corporations, results show that business diplomacy characterizes with a higher...

Read More
Juan-Pierré BRUWER Judith SMITH Suzaan LE ROUX

Critical Innovation Skills Required of Sole Trader Small, Medium and Micro Enterprise (SMME) Management and Its Influence on Perceived Business Profitability: A South African Perspective

Small, Medium and Micro Enterprises (SMMEs) play a significant role in the stimulation of economies around the globe. In South Africa, though SMMEs add significant socio-economic value to the national economy, approximately 75 per cent of these business entities fail after being in existence for less than four years. Among the economic factors which have been highlighted to adversely affect the sustainability of these business entities is the lack of scarce skills – in particular, that of critical innovation skills. The objective of this study was to ascertain whether critical innovation skills had any statistically significant influence on the perceived profitability of South African SMMEs. Empirical research, exploratory research, and survey research were conducted in this quantitative research study whereby 387 responses were received from South African SMME management who had to adhere to relevant delineation criteria. Based on the results, the critical innovation skills of...

Read More

Leadership of Entrepreneurshipb at the Macro-Level

The study assesses the state of leadership of entrepreneurship at the macro level. It further explores the effectiveness of leadership; the gaps, issues and challenges; and the roles of government and the private sector with regards to entrepreneurship leadership. At its core, the study challenges the assumption that entrepreneurship must be led by government and considers the alternative proposition that entrepreneurship can be led by itself – by an independent body of entrepreneurs. The research finding is that entrepreneurship is not effectively led: 1) Several private and public sector initiatives exist to support entrepreneurs, but remain largely uncoordinated. 2) There are a lack of standards and benchmarking at the macro level, even though entrepreneurs could benefit from accreditation, guidelines, governance and strategy frameworks. 3) Entrepreneurship lacks a unified voice. 4) The stakeholders of entrepreneurship compete, rather than collaborate. Government does not...

Read More
Wirawan Endro Dwi RADIANTO Tommy Christian EFRATA Liliana DEWI

Impact of Family’s Socio-Economic Context on Financial Literacy of Young Entrepreneurs

This study aims to analyze parents’ socio-economic relationships which include parental education, parental occupation, and parental income towards financial literacy. This study uses a sample of young entrepreneurs, students who are active in college and they also run a business. The results showed that the level of financial literacy of young entrepreneurs was at a moderate level. Furthermore, parental education and income have a relationship with financial literacy, whereas parental work does not influence financial literacy.

Read More

The Impact of CSR on the Sustainable Growth of Wholesale and Retail SMEs: The Case of eThekwini Municipal Region

Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) for businesses has been mainly associated with large corporations, Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) were insignificant as they regarded CSR a costly unsustainable business initiative. This scenario undermines the importance and critical role that SMEs play in the economy. Therefore, the study aimed at exploring the impact of CSR on the sustainable growth of Wholesale and Retail SMEs in the eThekwini Municipal region. Results were attained through assessing attitude levels of SMEs towards CSR; investigating the practice of CSR by SMEs; exploring barriers undermining the practice of CSR and exploring SME owners’ values key to the sustainable growth of their businesses. Stakeholder Theoretical framework guided the study; the philosophical paradigm that guided the research was post-positivist, which subsequently recommends a mixed-method approach, i.e. qualitative and quantitative. Data was obtained using self-administered questionnaires and semi...

Read More
Sanjay SINGH Shamila SINGH

Supply Chain Management Practices: Impediments to Service Delivery in the Department of Justice And Constitutional Development

This article articulates the challenges of the supply chain management practices impeding service delivery within the Department of Justice and Constitutional Development (DoJ and CD). The objectives of the study determines the nature and extent to which the SCM policy, procedures and practices are implemented in the DoJ and CD; the challenges in the supply chain management processes impeding service delivery; the impact of the SCM challenges regarding service delivery; and to recommend appropriate SCM practices that can be adopted and implemented in order to enhance the value chain and improve the service delivery constituent accordingly. The research methodology was a quantitative approach and a random sample of 132 questionnaires were distributed and the data was analysed using inferential statistics. The key research findings revealed that the department does not have a fully capacitated and competent team to perform all aspects of SCM that added value to their respective business...

Read More
Jimmy Ellya KURNIAWAN Ersa Lanang SANJAYA Stefani VIRLIA

Entrepreneurial Orientation and Parental Attachment on Emerging Adolescence

The development of entrepreneurial orientation cannot be separated from the role of parenting. While emerging adolescents tend to try to break away from their parents because they want to be closer to their peers. This purpose of this study is discovering differences of entrepreneurial orientation based on parental attachments to father, mother or both. This study used the survey method to 291 emerging adolescents in six major cities on the island of Java, Indonesia. The results showed that early adolescents who were close to both parents had higher entrepreneurial orientation than they who were only close to once parent or not close to both parents. This study also examined the role of parental attachment on each dimension of the entrepreneurial orientation.

Read More

The Heuristics of Entrepreneurs

The study considered and investigated the heuristics of entrepreneurs in the fields of management, strategy, innovation, marketing, sales, HR, and tactics. Overall, a very sophisticated heuristic set was surfaced. None of the areas studied can be described as under-developed. The sophistication of the heuristic set contrasts strongly with previous research on entrepreneurs’ heuristics. Entrepreneurs did not always and initially acknowledge their use of heuristics. It equally implies entrepreneurs may not be actively developing their thinking at all times. Although impressive, comprehensive, and original, the heuristics set may not truly be that distinct from the typical heuristics set of business leaders. Entrepreneurs differ in terms of the level of maturity or comprehensiveness they have reached in terms of the heuristics they consider and use. Entrepreneurs demonstrate natural proficiency and deficiency in terms of heuristics pertaining to areas they excel in and struggle with...

Read More

Social Entrepreneurship: Objectives, Innovation, Implementation and Impact on Entrepreneurship

The study examines social entrepreneurship from the perspective of: objective and philosophy (why social entrepreneurs are social entrepreneurs), opportunity identification (how social entrepreneurs recognise opportunities), implementation (how social entrepreneurship is implemented), and social entrepreneurship’s contribution to entrepreneurship. The dual objective (some profit, social impact), and strong focus on social impact of the social entrepreneur are highlighted. Although certainly possible, opportunities are encountered and experienced, and thus recognised, rather than actively sought. There are both strong similarities and differences between social entrepreneurship and entrepreneurship opportunities. Innovation is as much a component of social entrepreneurship. Also, the proactiveness and innovativeness of social entrepreneurship are important aspects and concepts. Social entrepreneurship can also be radical and disruptive. Implementation of social entrepreneurship entails...

Read More

Entrepreneurship, Innovation and Creativity: The Creative Process of Entrepreneurs and Innovators

The study examines the creative process of entrepreneurs and innovators. It considers how several types of thinking - analytical, analogical, imaginary, intuitive - are involved in creativity and the creative process. It further considers how learning and composite thinking – the integration of the different types of thinking - are incorporated in the creative process. The subsequent analysis covers a number of aspects of creativity and the creative process: 1) attributes, 2) traits, 3) skill, 4) stimulants, 5) process, 6) method and technique, 7) imagination, 8) intuition and the sub-conscious, 9) problem statement, 10) referencing past solutions, 11) the solution space, 12) teams, and 13) factors of success in the market. The prominent role of the intuition and the sub-conscious in creativity is clear. Both the left-brain and right-brain typically contribute to creativity. Perspective formation forms a key component of creativity. There is a semi-formal process to creativity. Both...

Read More
Juan-Pierré BRUWER Mariaan LOMBARD Yolandé SMIT Ankit KATRODIA

The Influence of Excise Taxation Levied on Product Sales on the Financial Sustainability of South African Tobacco-and-Alcohol-Selling Small, Medium and Micro Enterprise

In South Africa, Small, Medium and Micro Enterprises (SMMEs) are often described as the driving forces of the national economy, mainly due to the socio economic value they add. Unfortunately, prior research suggests that South African SMMEs are adversely influenced by an array of economic factors, one of which is taxation. One form of taxation, which influences an array of South African SMMEs, is that of excise taxation; as levied on specific products that are considered detrimental to the social- and/or environmental well-being of South African citizens. When taking into account that excise taxation has increased year-on-year for the past 20 years, the perception was formulated that South African tobacco-and-alcohol-selling SMMEs that are subject to excise taxation, experience weak financial sustainability. As such, this study placed emphasis on the influence excise taxation levied on products sold on the financial sustainability of tobacco-and-alcohol-selling South African SMMEs...

Read More
Bogdan AVRAM

The Importance of Air Connectivity and the Impact on Romanian Airports

In a world where passenger air travel is set to keep a positive growth rate over the years, airports all over the world are striving to increase their connectivity rate by attracting different airline companies, either for point to point connections or hub connectivity to wider the number of destinations reached from the airport to all over the world via a hub. From an airport perspective, creating a strategy to increase the connectivity performance index requires a lot of market analysis, following latest developments of hub connections from all over Europe, as hub connectivity tends to change on a yearly basis. Airport connectivity performance is directly linked to growth, studies (ACI Europe, 2018) showing that a +10% increase in passenger traffic leads to a +0.5% growth in the GDP per capita.

Read More

Examining Relationships between Destination Image, Tourist Motivation, Satisfaction, and Visit Intention in Yogyakarta

Tourism is currently developing rapidly in Indonesia, especially in the Special Regions of Yogyakarta Province. The objective of this study was to examine the theoretical and empirical evidence of the relationships among destination image, motivation, satisfaction, and visit intention. A research model was achieved using the survey method with a questionnaire, and the proposed model examined three hypotheses. The empirical data was collected from young generations (students). A total of 200 questionnaires were returned and the data were analyzed using Structural Equation Modeling (SEM). The results supported the proposed destination loyalty model: destination image and motivation directly influenced satisfaction; and tourist satisfaction had direct and positive impact on tourist’s visit intention.

Read More

Entrepreneurship and Knowledge Management: Knowledge Requirements, Utility, Creation, and Competency

The study examines knowledge management in the context of entrepreneurship: in particular, how entrepreneurs utilize and create knowledge, and build on knowledge as a core competency. Scientific research (SR) as knowledge type, and its relevance to the entrepreneur, are also investigated. With regards to knowledge creation, entrepreneurs excel at speed, originality and relevance, creativity, and business acumen. They have well-developed knowledge bases, and synthesize a lot of knowledge. Entrepreneurs both push and pull knowledge. The entrepreneur may source and acquire knowledge to advance and close the knowledge gaps of an identified opportunity, or may peruse knowledge in search of opportunity. The study elaborates on the relationship between knowledge and innovation, as well as the relationship between knowledge, creativity, and innovation. Entrepreneurs extensively consume scientific research, particularly to expand their knowledge bases. Similar to knowledge, entrepreneurs both...

Read More
Ersa Lanang SANJAYA Jimmy Ellya KURNIAWAN Stefani VIRLIA

Adolescents’ Entrepreneurial Orientation Based on Leisure Time

Adolescence age is an important time to develop the entrepreneurial potential. One of the important predictors for determining the career as entrepreneurs when they become adults is the entrepreneurial orientation of adolescents. Adolescence closely related to leisure time. Leisure time will help teenagers determine their contribution to their social experience. This study aims to examine the differences of adolescent entrepreneurial orientation based on their leisure time. The number of sample included 182 students. The scale used was based on an entrepreneurial orientation scale consisting of 52 statement items with a reliability range of 0.762-0.832 and CITC values above 0.3. The results showed that there were significant differences between entrepreneurial orientation and leisure time (p

Read More

Examining the Relationships between Service Quality, Corporate Image, Customer Satisfaction, and Customer Loyalty for an Indonesian Bank

This research aimed to discover the effect of service quality, corporate image, and customer satisfaction on customer loyalty. The primary data used in this study was obtained from a structured questionnaire sent to 98 customers of Bank BJB Saharjo, Jakarta Branch. Quantitative research was achieved using AMOS program to develop a structural equation model. The results of the study showed that service quality had a positive impact on customer loyalty, however corporate image had a negative effect on customer loyalty. Service quality and corporate image have a positive effect on customer satisfaction. Customer satisfaction is a positive determinant of customer loyalty. Thus, this paper supports previous empirical analysis and improves knowledge on improving relationships with bank customers.

Read More

Entrepreneurship, Innovation and Strategic Foresight: How Entrepreneurs Engage the Future as Opportunity

This study investigates how entrepreneurs and innovators engage the future, and it reflects on how strategic foresight (also called futures studies) can contribute to innovation and entrepreneurship. The literature emphasizes the importance of planning for the future, but not much attention has been given to how entrepreneurs view, forecast and incorporate the future, and how this influences their innovation and creativity. The study found that entrepreneurs are disconnected from the future, and do not take it seriously. The future is mostly left to unfold, and it appears as a surprise. Entrepreneurs use simple methods to engage the future, and their understanding of it is vague. There is a lack of leadership and coordination around the future, and very little intervention around the future. Entrepreneurs recognize a general connection between the future and innovation, but they fail to see the relationship between innovation and futures studies. Futures studies are central to...

Read More

A Systems Thinking and Design Thinking Approach to Leadership

Systems Thinking, Design Thinking and Leadership have largely been developed independently of each other. More recently, there have been, ongoing initiatives to integrate Systems Thinking and Design Thinking. The main aim of this abstract paper is to suggest that the effectiveness of this integrated approach is uniquely linked to leadership. The paper will emphasise the important role played by leadership and explore how leadership has developed through the different paradigms. The benefits of viewing these transitions from a Kuhnian scientific paradigm perspective is highlighted followed by a Systemic view of leadership and then a presentation of a Design Thinking perspective noting that the attributes arising out of the two approaches will benefit leadership. This leads to a discussion of how leadership will benefit from the integrated Systems and Design Thinking approach.

Read More

The Influence of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) Disclosure on Firm Value with Stakeholder Reaction as the Mediation Variable

This study is focused on evaluating CSR programs in Indonesia by examining the influence of CSR disclosure on the firm values through the mediation of stakeholders’ (customers and employees) reaction. This study applies an explanatory research approach and uses data of non-service corporations which enlisted at Indonesia Stock Exchange (IDX) from 2012 to 2014. A saturated sample technique is implemented to draw the sample and this study employs a structural equation modeling (variance-based). The implication of these results suggests that the government, as a regulator in the stock market, should provide a complete guidance about how to make a good CSR report which refers to Global Reporting Initiative. Eventually, this guidance could be used by stakeholder to make appropriate economic decisions. For companies, it is important to pay attention to CSR disclosure on the annual report or the company’s sustainability report because it is positively associated with the reaction of...

Read More
Roxana Elena POPȘA

Developments on the International Hotel Chain Market

Tourism is a mass phenomenon, and as a result, the number of accommodation capacities has increased enormously in recent years, especially in hotel groups, whether integrated or voluntary. Currently, a large part of hotel chains has subsidiaries around the world and covers major aspects of international tourism demand through their own distribution systems. Under these circumstances, this paper aims to analyse the global evolution of the main hotel chains, while also presenting performance issues, including average daily rate (ADR), and occupancy rate.

Read More
Kuncoro Dewi RAHMAWATI Fransisca Putri Intan WARDHANI Jimmy Ellya KURNIAWAN

Adolescents’ Entrepreneurial Orientation in terms of Perceived Self-Temperament

Entrepreneurial orientation is an important construct that usually affects performance, profit, product growth and innovation in a company. Some successful entrepreneurs have shown this character since adolescence. Therefore, it would be better if this entrepreneurial orientation is implemented early on. Researchers are interested in looking at the relationship between entrepreneurial orientation and personality, especially personality that is nature, referring to The Theory of Humours by Hippocrates (460 BC) and Galen (2 AD). Based on the results of the One-Way ANOVA test, it was found that there were significant differences from the four temperaments in the dimensions of innovativeness, risk taking, proactiveness and autonomy (p less than 0.05). Whereas in the competitive-aggressiveness dimension it is known that there are no significant differences in the four temperaments (p less than 0.05). Overall, entrepreneurial orientation variables, obtained results that there are...

Read More
Ibrahim DANJUMA Faiza Abubakar BAWURO Mary Augustine VASSUMU Sharif Ahmed HABIBU

The Service Quality Scale Debate: A Tri-Instrument Perspective for Higher Education Institutions

Service quality issues, over the years, have become an important consumer trend and have gained ground in service marketing literature in general, and the extant literature on higher education, in particular. Despite the fact that service quality is more difficult to measure than the quality of goods, several instruments for measuring service quality have been developed and validated, such as SERVQUAL, SERVPERF and HEDPERF. This article analysed three instruments for measuring service quality: SERVQUAL, SERVPERF, HEDPERF and compared them in terms of strengths and weaknesses within the context of higher education institutions. Although, both SERVPERF and HEDPERF instruments seem to have some reasonable measure of stability over the disconfirmation perspective of SERVQUAL scale, however, the growing competitions in the service industry has made SERVQUAL to be better because of its diagnostic ability. Using SERVQUAL to evaluate service quality would enable managers to identify and...

Read More
Bogdan AVRAM

The Route Development Strategies of Romanian Airports: A Key Challenge in Modern Aviation

Airport route development can be defined as a complex process carried out by airports, encouraging airlines to launch new routes or increase frequencies on already served destinations. The deregulated aviation environment helped airports to find new and innovative ways to compete directly with each other for a limited airline capacity, engaging with airlines and proving the airport route development strategy and airline needs meet at a certain point. The future prosperity of the communities the airports serve, depends on the efforts of the route development team and their focused aviation marketing strategy. A huge responsibility to attract what is best for the community as well as a good coordination between the airport, tourism boards, local business community and the active involvement of the citizens is crucial for any development strategy.

Read More

Local Consumers’ Purchase Intention toward Ghanaian Chocolate Brand

This study applied the theory of planned behaviour to predict intentions to purchase locally manufactured Ghanaian Golden Tree chocolate brand, as very little research attention has been paid to consumption of chocolate in cocoa producing countries. A random sample of 257 working and non-working University students responded to self-administered questionnaires. A structural model was developed based on intention, attitude, subjective norm and perceived behavioural control, and multiple regression analysis carried out to test the model’s ability to predict purchasing intention. There was low consumer intention to purchase the local chocolate brand. Attitude, subjective norm and perceived behavioural control collectively explained 55.5 percent of the variance in intention to purchase chocolate, and attitude was the strongest and significant predictor of intention to purchase. The study fills a gap in our understanding of chocolate purchasing behaviour of local consumers in a cocoa...

Read More

Personal and Social Attributes as Determinants of Entrepreneurial Intention

The concept of entrepreneurship is an interesting phenomenon in the context of contemporary economy today. Since entrepreneurship is directly linked to small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs), the existence of SME is important because SME is one of the factors driving the increase of economic growth. Many studies have aimed to discover and formulate what attributes contribute to the intent of becoming an entrepreneur and the success of an entrepreneur. Based on research conducted by Hongdiyanto (2017), there are 4 attributes trusted to mold entrepreneurs through learning models which are personal, social, support and organization. In this study, the researcher chose two attributes (personal and social) to be discussed further. This research represents a conceptual study that will discuss in detail these two variables, namely personal and social attributes. As a result, personal and social attributes are explored in detail with examples and useful descriptions.

Read More
Nicolene DE BEER Nadia OMAR

An Exploration of the Alignment between Managers’ Competencies and their Job Functions in the South African Post Office

This study explores the alignment of managers’ competencies with their job functions in the South African Post Office. Before alignment was explored, managers’ competencies were determined through self-assessments by managers and peer- assessments by subordinates. Fifty-five managers across four levels of management and 74 direct subordinates participated in the survey. Forty-four job profiles of managers were utilised to determine the job competencies of managers at SAPO. Twenty competencies were identified as job competencies against which the competencies of managers are aligned. Not only are the competencies of managers aligned to their job functions and competencies, but their job competencies are also aligned to researched competency models for management. This quantitative research study contains valuable information regarding the competencies of managers at SAPO and could contribute positively to leadership development, not only at SAPO, but also to other similar state-owned...

Read More

Entrepreneurship and Innovation: The Antecedents of Opportunity

The study examines the antecedents of opportunity in greater detail. A literature review highlights 9 antecedents of opportunity, and it was further investigated how these factors impact opportunity recognition. Some of the leading antecedents of opportunity were: solving problems, goals and aspirations, artistic creativity, adoption and networking. None of the antecedents by themselves are sufficient for innovation, as each has a caveat that may also hinder innovation. Also, it is evident that a number of the antecedents may offer unique solutions and benefits, including the acceleration of the identification of ideas and opportunities. In certain contexts, one antecedent may be more applicable or beneficial than another. Each antecedent potentially offers and allows expert areas of innovation, with innovators becoming very experienced in a particular antecedent as an area of innovation. Consequently, the innovator may continually gravitate towards a certain antecedent. A number of...

Read More
Regina Rovelia KAMBEY Fulgentius Danardana MURWANI Heri PRATIKTO

Determinants of Export Performance of Indonesian Coconut Companies

This research aims to identify several influential factors on export performance of superior coconut commodity in North Sulawesi Province, especially when it relates to the pricing strategy, firm characteristics, and export strategy during 2016-2017. The research is included into a descriptive and explanatory research that exerts quantitative approaches. The data are collected via questionnaire which was sent to nineteen export companies of superior coconut commodity in North Sulawesi. To analyze the data, this research uses the regression technique of data panel engaging Random Effect Model (REM) approach. The results of research show that: 1) The pricing strategy positively and significantly influences the export performance; 2) The firm characteristics positively and significantly influence the export performance; 3) The export strategy positively and significantly influences the export performance. From the identified variables in the research, the firm characteristics have a...

Read More

The Effect of Job Insecurity on Organizational Commitment in Impermanent Temporary Employees of an Indonesian Company

Most companies, either large or small, now employ more impermanent temporary employees, than full-time (permanent) employees. Impermanent temporary employees usually bear the same workload as regular employees or even more. However, in terms of salaries or other facilities, it is completely different for temporary employees, so they tend to feel less comfortable at work. One of the problems that arise from the inconvenience is the lack of commitment of temporary employees to the organization. This study aims to discover the effect of job insecurity on organizational commitment of impermanent temporary employees from Anggrek and Cempaka units in PT Royal Korindah. Purbalingga. Variables used in this research are: ‘job insecurity’ as the independent variable and ‘organizational commitment’ as the dependent variable. This study involves 82 temporary impermanent employees of the units examined. The results of data analysis indicate that there is a effect of job insecurity toward...

Read More

Determinants of Competitiveness in Companies that Comprise the Aerospace Cluster in the State of Sonora

Most of the leading countries in the world production of the aerospace sector, over time, have triangulated their production, by installing plants in other countries, to reduce costs. The United States concentrates most of the world production of aircraft. Consequently, Mexico has joined this dynamic production process through the operation of almost four hundred companies in this industrial sector. The states of Baja California, Chihuahua, Nuevo Leon, Querétaro and Sonora, lead the production of this sector in Mexico. The objective of this work is to determine if the companies in the aerospace sector of the state of Sonora are competitive in a regional context with respect to the growth of the entire sector in the country. The degree of competitiveness was calculated using the Competitive Advantage Index in two levels –the aerospace sector at the national level and at the state level-. The results of this research confirm that the competitiveness of companies in the aerospace sector...

Read More
Bruce MASAMA Juan-Pierré BRUWER

Revisiting the Economic Factors which Influence Fast Food South African Small, Medium and Micro Enterprise Sustainability

In order to stimulate both developing economies and developed economies around the globe policy makers have, over the years, focused their attention to Small, Medium and Micro Enterprises (SMMEs). These business entities are often regarded as the lifeblood of economies around the globe however SMMEs are reported to have high failure rates. For example, in a South African dispensation, the failure rate of SMMEs is considered to be among the worst in the world as approximately 75% fail within a period of 42 months after opening. Through research in the early-2000s, the cause of the excessive South African SMMEs failure rate has been pinned on a plethora of micro-economic factors and macro-economic factors. Over the years the list of economic factors which adversely influence the sustainability of South African SMMEs have not changed drastically, which may well probably explain the high failure rate of these business entities in more recent times. Thus, for this paper, empirical research...

Read More
Akinlawon O. AMOO Shamila SINGH

The Mediating and Moderating Role of Job Satisfaction in the Leadership Behaviour and Work Engagement Relationship

The aim of the present study was to investigate job satisfaction as a moderator of the relationship between leadership behaviour and trainee work engagement. The study was conducted in an artisan training academy located inthe East of Johannesburg. Data was collected from the entire population of 150 employed trainees in the academy using: (i) a self-designed demographical data questionnaire; (ii)the Harris and Ogbonna (2001) 13-item leadership behaviour questionnaire (iii) the Utrecht work engagement scale (UWES) developed by Schaufeli et al. (2002), and (iv) the single global rating for job satisfaction developed in 1990 by Allen and Meyer. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis were conducted in a census study of 150 trainees. Results showed that work engagement is significantly affected by leadership behaviour, and job satisfaction mediated and moderated the leadership behaviour – work engagement relationship.

Read More
Juan-Pierré BRUWER Luyolo SIWANGAZA Yolandé SMIT

Loss Control and Loss Control Strategies in SMMEs Operating in a Developing Country: A Literature Review

A large proportion of South African Small, Medium and Micro Enterprises (SMMEs) make use of customised internal control initiatives and customised risk management practices to mitigate and/or manage risks, to provide reasonable assurance regarding the attainment of objectives in the foreseeable future. According to research studies however, the aforementioned internal control initiatives and risk management practices are deemed to be inadequate and/or ineffective. This is especially the case as these business entities are predominantly focused on preventing generic risks in relation to the safeguarding of assets and independent checks, while ignoring key risks which may be detrimental to the attainment of their objectives. Since approximately 70% of South African SMMEs fail after being in existence less than four years it is highly probable that these business entities are not paying enough attention to mitigate and/or manage key risks (potential loss events) and controlling actual...

Read More

The Second Curve. Driving Individual and Organizational Change

The following paper presents the applicability of the “second curve” concept in the organizational environment, emphasizing the importance of coordinating the individual and organizational changes in a pre-established direction. Moreover, the aim is to offer a theoretical and practical basis for all the practitioners that need to control change and to plan any further next steps, being it either an individual career development or an organizational growth planning. In order to conclude this, the paper approaches organizational change as a constant necessity, willing to demonstrate that the individual controlled changes implemented at the correct moment will have a controlled organizational impact and will therefore lead to organizational change and development. Also, using the “second curve” as the representation of a change in the initial path (considered the “first curve”), the paper redefines change as a solution not only to problems and issues, but as well as a method of keeping...

Read More
Bogdan AVRAM

The Hybrid Airline Model. Generating Quality for Passengers

This research aims to investigate the different strategies adopted by the airline companies in adapting to the ongoing changes while developing products and services for passengers in order to increase their yield, load factor and passenger satisfaction. Finding a balance between costs and services quality in the airline industry is a crucial task for every airline wanting to gain a competitive advantage on the market. Also, the rise of the hybrid business operating model has brought up many challenges for airlines as the line between legacy carriers and low-cost carriers is getting thinner in terms of costs and innovative ideas to create a superior product for the passengers.

Read More

The Influence of Working Environment Conditions, Compensation and Career Development on Employees’ Working Motivation at an Indonesian Bank

This research aims to understand and analyse the influence of working environment conditions and career development towards the improvement of employees’ working motivation. This research is conducted at the Bank Rakyat Indonesia (Persero) Ltd. Tulungagung Jawa Timur Office Branch. The sample amount counted by census technique and acquired 91 responses. The sampling method used was census technique. The data collection instrument is a questionnaire which is analysed by path analysis. Findings in this research show significant direct influence of working environment, compensation, and career development towards employees’ working motivation. This means that employee motivation will rise with the presence of delightful working environment, compensation, and career development. This research is contributing as a consideration and advice for BRI Tulungagung Office Branch management since working environment condition, compensation, and career development can positively influence the...

Read More
Franz HAAS

Model Building – A Circular Approach to Evaluate Multidimensional Patterns and Operationalized Procedures

Managers operate in highly different fields. Decision-making can be based on models reflecting in part these differences. The challenge is to connect the respective models without too great a disruption. A threefold procedural approach is proposed by chaining a scheme of modeling in a complex field to an operationalized model to statistical multivariate methods. Multivariate pattern-detecting methods offer the chance to evaluate patterns within the complex field partly. This step completes the cycle of research and improved models can be used in a further cycle.

Read More

Innovation and Entrepreneurship: The Necessary Conditions of Value Creation

The necessary conditions of value creation are considered from the vantage point of innovation and entrepreneurship. Both demand side (basic needs, customer perceived value, and customer satisfaction) and supply side (science, technology, and knowledge) considerations of value creation are examined. The relationships between value creation and basic needs, customer perceived value, and knowledge are further examined. Although a number of factors are identified that impact value, only four are seen as primary factors of value: price, benefit, satisfaction, and experience. The innovator and entrepreneur can create value, and quantify the uniqueness of their value offerings, through these four primary factors. The study concludes that, on the demand side, basic needs may be an indirect driver of value creation, and customer perceived value as concept may be useful in the context of value creation. At the same time, it is believed that the four factors – price, benefit, satisfaction, and...

Read More
Sandra EBERT

Consumer Psychology Insights and their Use for Operational Book Marketing

The aim of this article is to provide first insights on how Consumer Psychology could enhance operational book marketing through book design in particular. After highlighting the current German book market and its highly competitive and fast transforming market situation, the article summarizes recent findings from the field of Consumer Psychology relevant for the book market. To focus lies in the book design which has a large influence on the buyer’s decision making. Three facets of consumer psychological book design (text design, book body and cover design) will be object of the research. Research form Consumer Psychology aim on optimization of stimulus design in order to achieve better information perception, processing and memorization gain better customer awareness and increase the likelihood of a positive buying decision. Overall, especially such a highly competitive market as the book market has a lot to gain from applying findings from the field of Consumer Psychology.

Read More

Analysis of the Effect of Individual Characteristics, Employees’ Competency and Organizational Climate on Job Satisfaction and Employees’ Performance at a State-Owned Trading Company in Indonesia

Job satisfaction and employees’ performance are important for the organization to improve the company's competitive value. This research aims to know the influence of individual characteristic, employees’ competency and organizational climate toward job satisfaction and its implication on employees’ performance. The research method used in this research is cross sectional survey. The population of this research was from 4 cities with a total sample of 51 employees. Moreover, this research applied structural equation modeling with Partial Least Square approach for analyzing the data. The results showed that individual characteristics do not effect on job satisfaction, while employees’ competency and organizational climate have a significant effect on job satisfaction. Then, job satisfaction has a significant effect on employees’ performance. It is necessary to conduct training and education programs along with flexible structural support and adequate rewards for the employees to...

Read More

Supply Chain of the Beef Market in Indonesia

Indonesian beef market is very interesting considering the 250 million people residing in the country. In a year, around 670 million kg of beef are consumed; 440 million kg are supplied by local production and 230 million are imported. The price of beef in the Indonesian market (US$ 9.1) is about double that in Australia (US$ 4.2). The high price and the wide margin becomes an appeal for a deeper inquiry. This raises questions such as how does the supply chain look like, how is the distribution of the wide margin from importers to retailers, does corruption still exist due to the import licensed, and who really enjoys the profit. This study aims to analyze the supply chain of beef industry and the factors affecting meat prices in Indonesia. The data was collected through a survey of 134 respondents in seven districts and cities in Surakarta, Indonesia followed by in-depth interviews with breeders, slaughters, wholesalers, retailers and consumers. The results show that factors...

Read More

Impact of Brand Image, Product Quality and Self-Efficacy on Purchase Decisions on Private Label Rights Products. An Empirical Study

Present research was aimed at analyzing the impact of brand image, product quality and self-efficacy on purchase decision on private label rights (PLR) products among Medan city community members. A hundred community members of Medan City were involved as the subjects of this research. The research results showed that the variable of product quality has a significant effect on consumer purchase decisions. It is concluded that good quality products in private label rights (PLR) products should be maintained and even improved, thus leading to more positive societal impression on private label rights (PLR) products. Some of the respondents consider private label rights (PLR) products with good product quality presents more interest to try or buy.

Read More
Alexander STELZER

Negotiation as a Function in Supply Chain Transactions

This scientific study is investigating the economic and success factors of success in negotiation in the world of trade and sale. In addition to the keynotes of the Harvard concept, my study focuses largely on trust and transparency at annual meetings or other meetings held throughout the year, strongly favouring a satisfactory result for both negotiating parties. A conceptual model has been proposed to merge the fundamental principles of the Harvard Negotiation Concept with the finding that trust and transparency in communication is a key factor in terms of economic success experiences and socio - mental satisfaction.

Read More
Franz HAAS

Deciding the Entry Mode in Chinese Markets. Practices Managers Should Avoid Pursuing

This research project considers Austrian enterprises, which have been pursuing business partnerships and relations with Chinese companies. One specific question of the research aimed at finding out which factors lead to pronounced difficulties experienced by companies having chosen a specific market entry strategies. This research question was explored through a primary research of 86 managers participating in an online survey in 2016. The data analysis implied an exploratory factor analysis of ten pre-defined factors that led to a new model of five components depicting narrow decision-making processes, namely: relying too much on company-related external expertise, national- or international-related external expertise, isolated practices like adopting what other companies do, purely financial-driven processes, or encapsulated decision processes. The factor scores’ analysis shows that there are significant differences between companies from different economic sectors.

Read More