Nyasha MAPIRA Jeremy MITONGA-MONGA Wilfred Isioma UKPERE

Moonlighting: A Reality to Improve the Lived Experiences of Casual Workers

This paper explores the effectiveness of moonlighting to improve the experiences of casual workers at a transnational manufacturing firm in Zimbabwe. Eight individuals, who varied in terms of gender, position held, age, and educational qualifications, participated in an exploratory qualitative study. Data was gathered on the effectiveness of moonlighting to enhance the daily experiences of casual workers, using semi-structured interviews. The study found that the majority of casual employees benefit from moonlighting by learning new skills that promote occupational mobility, enhance financial stability, and lessen job insecurity. Conversely, the study also found that moonlighting has detrimental effect on casual workers' ability to balance their professional and personal lives, leads to overworking, and increases stress related to their jobs. The study recommends that to avoid any conflicts of interest between primary employment and a secondary job, organisations should govern and control moonlighting. Organisations should also increase the minimum wage so that casual workers can afford fundamental necessities, whilst lessening their desire to moonlight.
JEL Classification J22, J41, L61, M54
Full Article

1. Introduction

Over the past few years non-standard work arrangements have replaced the job-for-life concept in many industries (Svetek, 2022). The ongoing worldwide economic crisis of the new millennium has caused a prevalence and growth of unconventional types of employment (Zhuang, 2022; Ofosu, and Sarpong, 2022; Pickey et al., 2009). The adoption of new types of labour was also seen to be influenced by globalisation, ushering a need for flexible markets (Amirault, 1997; Boodhoo, 2022; Fore and Ukpere, 2021; Leathwood and Read, 2022). The afore-mentioned macro-economic changes and the increase in labour market flexibility in recent years have also made job markets unstable, resulting in much shorter job tenures than in the past (Peterson, 2021; Verbeke and Hutzschenreuter, 2021; OECD, 1997; Gregg and Wadsworth, 1999). These changes make it necessary for workers to moonlight to obtain a stable income and to protect themselves against uncertainty (Conen, and de Beer, 2021; Manzella, 2019). Similarly, McKinney and McKinney (2020) assert that non-standard workers have had to actively pursue a strategy of moonlighting to deal with the labour market’s instability. Moonlighting has become a widespread phenomenon, prevalent in many developed and developing economies (Manzella, 2019). Moonlighting statistics indicate that moonlighters are increasing in European countries (Bureau of Labour Statistics, 2015, European Commission Report, 2015). Likewise, 7.3 million US workers held several jobs in 2015 although this number has been falling progressively since the mid-1990s (Akinde, Micah and Ademola, 2020; Sakyi and Agomor 2021; European Commission Report, 2022). In Zimbabwe, moonlighting has become a prevalent occurrence, caused by both macro and micro environmental factors (Mabweazara, 2018; Mambiravana, Shava and Gunhidzirai, 2022). Employers in Zimbabwe have been forced by the macro-economic quagmire to pay wages and salaries that are far below regional pay rates and the poverty line, forcing employees to work second jobs to augment their pay and salaries (Chikanda, 2019; Mohd and Hassim, 2020; Tagwira, 2022). Zimbabwe's unemployment rate is predicted to be at least 90%, and the fortunate few who do have jobs frequently work second jobs to make ends meet (Mambiravana, Shava and Gunhidzirai, 2022; Chambati, 2021). The afore-mentioned points of view are supported by Uzhenyu (2021) who contends that poor investments in the Zimbabwean business environment and the months-long pay delays experienced by employees in both private and state sectors have made moonlighting a norm. According to Tazhitdinova (2022), moonlighting is the practise of working at least one additional job whilst holding a principal job. Numerous authors have cited characteristics of moonlighting. According to Husain (2014), a primary job and secondary employment might not be connected. The primary work may be permanent while the secondary employment may be transitory (Sangwan, 2014). A moonlighter’s primary and secondary employment must be paid positions (Hirsch, 2016). The motivations, effectiveness and outcomes of moonlighting are hotly contested from a variety of angles, including job stress, absenteeism and diverted attention (Conway et al., 2001). Correspondingly, Shishko (2013) claims that while the motives and outcomes of moonlighting vary, they can either be favourable or unfavourable. With so many uncertainties about the effectiveness of moonlighting, there is a need for a study to explore the effectiveness of moonlighting to improve the lived experiences of casual workers.

It is important to mention that moonlighting is one of the coping mechanisms that casual workers used to improve their lived experiences. This study sought to explore and understand the effectiveness of moonlighting to improve the daily lived experiences of casual workers at a transnational manufacturing firm in Zimbabwe. The study’s question is classified as follows: “How effective is moonlighting to improve the lived experiences of casual workers?”

2. Literature Review

Theories supporting moonlighting, the motivations for moonlighting, as well as the virtues and drawbacks of moonlighting are all covered in the study’s literature review.

2.1. Motives for Moonlighting

The Relative Deprivation Theory, Aspiration Theory, and the Work-Leisure Choice Theory are a few of the theories and models that have been developed to explain moonlighting. According to the Relative Deprivation Theory, moonlighters are socially and economically deprived, while the Aspiration Theory assumes that moonlighters are special individuals who have higher aspirations and more drive to search for another job. Finally, the Work-Leisure Choice Theory contributes to understanding the reasons why people moonlight (Adjei, 2013). Therefore, the Work-Leisure Choice Theory serves as the primary framework for this study.

2.2. Work-Leisure Choice Theory and Hour Constraints

The Work-Leisure Choice Theoryassumes that for moonlighters who are time-constrained, the reason why workers take secondary employment is because they do not work sufficient hours at their primary job (Perlman, 1966; Quarshie et al., 2022.). The hour limitations motive is one of the main reasons for moonlighting, according to a study by Conway and Kimmel (2001). The said study found that working other jobs is more likely to occur when the primary job is worked fewer hours, and vice versa. Shishko and Rostker (2000), who suggest that moonlighting happens in situations where the number of hours offered to a worker is less than that, which is desired at a particular salary rate, share the same opinion. Additionally, Allen (1998) states that people moonlight as a sensible response to them being under-utilised in their primary work. The author further argues that if a worker works fewer hours than expected at their primary job, they may search for a second job to make up for the fluctuating hours for which they are not paid. In the same vein, Perlman (2006) contends that underemployed individuals often want comparatively longer work hours at a given wage rate and are more inclined to accept a secondary job if the primary job's hours are shorter than anticipated. Krishnan (2009) avers that working longer hours and earning more money at one's primary job reduces the rate of moonlighting. The afore-mentioned perspectives explain motivations for a worker to moonlight owing to limited hours of work.

2.3. Work-Leisure Choice Theory and Job Portfolio Motive

The Work-Leisure Choice theory also assumes that the job portfolio motive induces workers to moonlight. Dickey et al. (2011) argue that people moonlight to diversify their employment options. Similarly, Dickey et al. (2011) posits that those who moonlight does so because they want to divide their time across a variety of employment options. The stance by Heineck and Schwarze (2004), which supports the afore-mentioned points of view, is that the job portfolio motive may be linked to the desire to acquire new skills or work experience in other fields. Husain (2014) makes a similar claim, declaring that those who moonlight look for a preferred employment portfolio that offers diversity in job duties and job distinction. A job portfolio motive would be that two jobs can be viewed from the perspective of diversification (Paxon and Shicherman, 2007).

2.4. Moonlighting and Financial Motive

Shishko and Rostker (2000) profess that the primary job salary and the moonlighting wage rate would influence the availability of labour for a secondary job. A rise in the pay scale for a secondary job result in more people moonlighting (Shishko, 1976). Increases in secondary job pay encourage those who do not moonlight to take up second jobs, since this would boost their take-home pay. Similarly, lower primary job pay raises the likelihood of moonlighting and vice versa (Guthrie, 2006). A study by Hamel (2007) and Guthrie (2006) showed a correlation between earning potential and the likelihood of workers taking a second job. According to Amuedo-Dorantes and Kimmel (2009), when unemployment is high, wages are low, and there is a chance of a future economic crisis, then workers moonlight to stabilise their family's income. The claim that working multiple jobs is financially beneficial was validated by Baah-Boateng et al’s. (2013) study. Moonlighting is induced by lower pay at the main job, while the opposite is also true. Dickey et al. (2015) supports the assertion that people moonlight to lessen financial insecurities owing to their primary job.

2.5. Heterogeneity Motives

There are also other motives for working a second job other than financial ones. According to Heineck and Schwarze (2004), people view a second job as a means of developing new abilities or gaining relevant work experience for alternative occupations. Even if they are not exposed to financial uncertainty, employees may look for a secondary way to develop new skills and work-related experiences (Guariglia and Kim, 2004; Pouliakas, 2017). According to Boheim and Taylor (2004), employees may find the secondary job satisfying because they can explore new fields of work, acquire new skills or credentials, and keep flexible work schedules that the primary job does not permit. Likewise, Dickey et al. (2011) assert that people take second jobs to advance their education and professional expertise, find fulfilment in their work outside of their primary position, avoid job uncertainty, keep flexible work hours, and obtain credentials and experience. Recent research demonstrates that the ability of moonlighters to ease labour market transitions is one of the primary motives for moonlighting. These studies acknowledge that engaging in a second job is one approach to gain new or better abilities that can lead to increased labour mobility and self-employment.

2.6. Merits of Moonlighting

When a person's primary job does not offer enough hours or money, secondary employment can assist them to maintain their desired level of life (Taylor, 2004). Sangwani (2014) further contends that in circumstances where the primary job is hourly and the income is constrained, financial security can be attained engaging in multiple occupations. The afore-mentioned assertions are supported by Taylor and MC Crosstie’s (1995) study, which the authors conducted in New Zealand. According to the study, moonlighters can supplement their income by doing side jobs. Additionally, it has been discovered that moonlighting results in higher job mobility, access to a strong network, improved skill sets, and lower staff turnover (Sangwan, 2014). Further, Dickey (2011) maintains that secondary work skills can affect future occupational mobility and career possibilities, including a move into self-employment. The author continues by saying that having a second job helps people learn more job-related skills and improves their intellectual capacity, both of which act as insurance against employment insecurity.

2.7. Hazards of Moonlighting

Despite the benefits of moonlighting, it is wise to think about how it may affect moonlighters' work-life balance, as well as their occupational health and safety. Moonlighting is known to be associated with work-related stress, burnout, and work-related and non-work injuries (Timothy, 2017). The difficulties that moonlighters experience may include increased exhaustion, lack of sleep, and heightened physical and emotional stress because of being subjected to disruptive or erratic work settings and schedules. Wehr (2015), who expresses similar views, claims that having a second job impacts a person's health negatively owing to work overload, burnout, and weariness. The combined effects and interplay of multiple employment have been linked to additional psycho-social stress (Kisumano, 2017). Sangwan (2014) asserts that moonlighting is connected to overworked staff, the risk of competition, conflicts of interest, inefficiencies and moral conundrums when dealing with businesses in the sector. The problem of absenteeism is another issue related to moonlighting. According to Barnejee (2012), moonlighting tends to raise absence rates. The author further states that because of the demands of the second job, moonlighters skip work frequently. In addition, Costa (2020) mentions that moonlighting impacts work-life balance, notably family and societal activities.

3. Research Methodology

3.1. Research Setting and Participants

Purposive sampling procedures were used to choose a total of eight participants. The inclusion criterion was based on participants who had worked as casual employees for at least six months at a transnational manufacturing company in Zimbabwe. Key informants included managerial staff and union leaders at the case transnational manufacturing firm in Zimbabwe.

3.2. Research Strategy

A transnational manufacturing firm in Zimbabwe served as the sole case study for this study's methodology. Because of limited time and resources, the researcher focused on one transnational manufacturing company in Zimbabwe. Utilising one or more cases in an ongoing, real-world setting or context, is a case study research technique (Yin, 2009). A single case study, according to Wilkins (2011), provides thorough data and aids in the researcher's ability to comprehend phenomena better.

3.3. Data Collection

Due to its ability to give participants freedom and flexibility when studying the phenomenon, semi-structured interviews were utilised by the researcher to gather data. Probing questions were used to elicit further information or clarification from participants when it was necessary. Face-to-face semi-structured interviews, according to Fontana (2010), enable deeper inquiry to elucidate meanings. The participants received the same set of open-ended questions and were encouraged to respond and speak freely.

3.4. Data Analysis

Data analysis, according to Saunders et al. (2018), is the act of organising, classifying, and assessing data through the use of analytical and logical reasoning. The researcher supported and enhanced the thematic analysis for this study by using the NVivo computer-based qualitative data analysis system. Thematic analysis, according to Buetow (2010), enables the researcher to identify important themes and patterns that regularly appear in the data. Table 1 below shows key word, which were generated by the NVivo computer-based qualitative data analysis system.

Table 1. Key words appearance and frequency

Word Length Count/Appearance
Income 6 18
Work experience 14 14
Profit 6 13
Overworking 11 11
Side job 7 10
Work-life imbalance 17 9
New skills 9 8

Source: Authors’ fieldwork

The frequency of the key phrases produced by the NVivo qualitative data analysis system is seen in Table 1 above. ‘New skills’ was the least stated word, with income being the most frequently mentioned word. The researcher was able to track the word from the sources and read and record the participants' feelings about it thanks to the word's reference and appearance.

3.5. Strategies to Ensure Data Quality

The researcher used credibility, transferability, dependability, and confirmability as the trustworthiness metrics for the study (Guba and Lincoln, 2000). By utilising the following strategies, namely prolonged involvement, ongoing observation, reflexivity, peer participant debriefing and member check, the researcher ensured credibility. To guarantee transferability, the researcher provided a thorough explanation of the research approach and conducted a member verification process. The researcher documented the research approach thoroughly, maintaining an audit trail of the investigation to assure reliability. To confirm the research findings, the researcher must ensure that these accurately reflect information that the participants provided without reflecting their own preferences and personality traits. The researcher maintained an audit trail, as mentioned previously, to guarantee confirmability.

3.6. Ethical Considerations

To enable participants to choose whether or not to participate in the study, the researcher first made sure that they were fully informed of its objectives. Participation was, therefore, voluntary, and free of coercion. The researcher also used pseudonyms to conceal the identities of the participants. This was done to lessen the possibility of participants suffering harm or becoming victims of a breach of confidentiality. Last, but not least, the researcher adhered to the standards of academic honesty and integrity by being open and truthful about the study’s goals, citing the relevant authors and referencing their respective work in the list of references.

3.7. Profiles of Research Participants

Eight research participants were purposively selected from the transnational firm in Zimbabwe. The case transnational firm in Zimbabwe’s, management personnel, casual workers and union representatives took part in this study. The researchers interviewed one managerial employee, two union officials, and five casual workers. To distinguish between research participants who participated in the interviews, "C" was utilized as a pseudonym for the casual workers, while "M" and "U" were used as codes for the managerial staff and union representatives, respectively. The research participants' profiles and interview length are summarised in Table 2 below.

The least experienced casual employee, as shown in Table 2, worked for the transnational company in Zimbabwe for six months. The eight research participants had experience ranging from six months to six years. There were six male participants and two female ones. Academic qualification profiles are important to note. One person has a master's degree, while three participants in the study held bachelor's degrees. At the case transnational company in Zimbabwe, the lowest-qualified casual employee held an O-level certificate. Forty-nine minutes were spent on the longest interview.

Table 2: Research participants’ profiles and interview duration

No. Pseudonyms Age Gender Work experience Qualification Interview duration
1 C1 19 M 6months O level certificate 40mins
2 C2 23 F 9months Diploma 31mins
3 C3 21 M 8months A-level certificate 29mins
4 C4 25 F 1year Bachelor’s degree 33mins
5 C5 28 M 11months Bachelor’s degree 41mins
6 M1 30 M 4years Diploma 37mins
 7 U1 37 M  6years Master’s degree 40mins
8 U2 34 M 5years Bachelor’s degree 49mins

Source: Author’s fieldwork

4. Findings of the Study

The study’s results were organised into themes, which emerged during data analysis. The results relate to the research study’s questions, shown below.

- How effective is moonlighting to improve the lived experiences of casual workers?

Themes and sub-themes generated during the data analysis were used to organise the study’s findings. The subthemes that emerged during data analysis included getting work-related experience, labour market mobility, acquiring new skills, financial security, overworking, and work-life imbalance. The researchers classified sub-themes into two major themes, namely effective and ineffective. The themes and sub-themes that emerged from the study are presented in Table 3 below.

Table 3: Themes and sub-themes from the study

Themes Sub-themes
Effective -Work related experience
-Labour market mobility
-Financial security
Ineffective -Overworking
-OHS challenges
-Work-life imbalance

Source: Author’s fieldwork

Table 3 above shows subthemes and themes that emerged from the study. The subthemes that emerged during data analysis included getting work-related experience, labour market mobility (acquiring new skills), financial security (earning extra income), OHS challenges, overworking, and work-life imbalance. The researchers classified sub-themes into two major themes, namely effective and ineffective.

4.1. Data Frequency

The study’s findings show that a majority of the participants (n=5) indicated that moonlighting is effective in improving the experiences as casual workers. However, a few of the research participants (n=3) expressed that moonlighting is ineffective in improving their experiences. The research participants' response rate is shown in Table 4 below.

Table 4: Themes and data frequency

Themes Frequency
Effective 5
Ineffective 3

Source: Author’s fieldwork

According to the majority of participants, as shown in Table 4 above, moonlighting is effective in enhancing the experiences of casual workers. A few study participants, however, claimed that moonlighting did little to enhance their experiences. Each of the sub-themes, in relation to the extant literatures, is discussed below.

4.2. Participants’ Quotes

Responding to a question that aimed to unearth the effectiveness of moonlighting as a coping mechanism to improve the lived experiences of casual workers, a majority of the participants revealed that moonlighting is indeed effective. Table 5 below illustrates participants’ quotes in this respect.

Table 5: Participants’ quotes on effectiveness of moonlighting as a coping mechanism

Pseudonym Quotes
C1 “Having a side business means limited financial challenges. I am making huge profits selling AVON products.”
C2 “You never go wrong for having another job because you get enough work-related experience and new skills.”
C4 “Having a side job allows me to get new skills and if my contract lapses, I will concentrate on my side job.”
M1 “They earn a lot of money from their secondary businesses.”
U1 “They afford expensive private schools for their children because of their secondary private businesses.”

Source: Author’s fieldwork

As shown above, several research participants expressed that moonlighting is an effective mechanism to improve their daily experiences. Their sentiments centred on moonlighting improving their financial positions, whilst they gain work-related experience and learn new skills, fostering labour market mobility. Moonlighting, according to some of the research participants, does not significantly enhance their experiences as casual employees. Due to the responsibilities of both the primary and secondary job, one participant said that moonlighting made it impossible to maintain a work-life balance. He mentioned that it is challenging to balance work and family obligations when one is engaged in numerous jobs. In this regard, C3 said: “It’svery difficult to have time with your family because you are always working.”

Two other research participants mentioned overworking and health and safety issues as additional difficulties associated with moonlighting. These participants emphasised how stressful it is to hold both a primary and secondary job, causing the moonlighter to overwork. These individuals also emphasised how a second job impacted one's health negatively owing to mental stress, work overload, burnout, and increased tiredness. Hence, C5 stated: “My brother, I am now tired of working multiple jobs now and I can feel the stress since I am over-working.’’ Similarly, U2 has this to say; ‘Moonlighting leads to exhaustion, burnout and mental health problems”.

4.3. Discussion of the Findings

The primary goal of the study was to explore and understand whether moonlighting can enhance the regular experiences of casual workers at the transnational manufacturing firm in Zimbabwe. The participants’ responses revealed two themes, namely effective and ineffective. Effective appeared to be the frequently mentioned theme. The majority of participants asserted that having a second job offered benefits like financial security, professional growth and career mobility. However, other research participants found that moonlighting was ineffective and had major drawbacks, including burnout, mental stress, overworking and problems with one's own health and safety. The following section presents a discussion of the themes and sub-themes that emerged from the study.

4.3.1. Financial Security

Under the sub-theme of financial security, quotes were collected from participants pertaining to economic and financial gain. The major finding's sub-theme that relates to financial security, was to uncover that, which makes moonlighting effective to enhance the experiences of casual workers. CW1 reported: “Having a side business means limited financial challenges. I am making huge profits selling AVON products.” The financial motive concept, which claims that readiness to work longer hours and having a second job is tied to the desire to improve one's financial situation, is backed by CW1's remarks. According to Nunoo et al. (2016), in support of the afore-mentioned study's findings, moonlighting is a practical way for people who make a modest salary to better their financial situation, whilst satisfying a variety of needs and goals. Betts’s (2006) economic analysis of moonlighting lends weight to the study's findings. The economic theory of moonlighting views numerous jobs as a useful strategy to supplement income for the principal employment. Similarly, Pouliakas (2017) states that having a second job helps workers to maintain their desired level of life when their first employment does not offer enough pay.The impact of having multiple jobs, according to Ara and Akbar (2016), is that it is effective and helps moonlighters' financial situation. According to Krishnan's (1990) research, people's desire to moonlight and income correlate positively. This implies that if the primary job's salary is low, employees may moonlight to improve their financial situation. Another study by Taylor, Little and Crosstie (2005) discovered that having several occupations served as a crucial source of extra income to maintain workers' incomes. Correspondingly, Sangwani (2014) professes that having numerous jobs can help to provide financial security, particularly when the primary employment is confined by hours or pay.

4.3.2. Labour Market Mobility

Some participants said that because it enabled them to gain new skills and promoted labour mobility, moonlighting is useful to enhance their daily experiences. CW4 said: “Having a side job allows me to get new skills and if my contract lapses, I will concentrate on my side job. The perspectives of CW4 are in line with the heterogeneous motive for moonlighting. According to Pouliakas (2017), moonlighters' transition to the labour market is facilitated by the job heterogeneity motive. The study by Pouliakas (2017) recognises that having several jobs is a way to acquire new skills, which promotes labour mobility. In a similar vein, Georgieos et al. (2011) mention that moonlighting can result in job advancement, labour mobility and self-employment. Evidence from economies in transition indicates that dual employment is more likely to be transient and associated with future job mobility. Moonlighting in Russia, according to Guariglia and Kim (2006), is a transient phenomenon, typically accompanied by career changes that lean towards self-employment. The remarks from CW4 also support the idea that the secondary labour market could serve as an excellent incubator for starting up new self-employed firms (Demirguc-Kunt et al., 2011).

4.3.3. Work-related Experience

The study's conclusions demonstrate that moonlighting can be a useful strategy to obtain necessary professional experience. Hence, CW2 stated: “You never go wrong for having another job because you get enough work-related experience and new skills.” The afore-mentioned points of view are reinforced by Kaur and Saini (2020), who contend that moonlighting may be a way for workers to obtain relevant experience whilst improving their talents, which they may then use at their primary employment. Moonlighting has been associated with better financial security, professional mobility, strong networks owing to increased contact with people, skills improvement, and work-related experience (Sangwan, 2014). The following sub-section discusses the research findings linked to moonlighting hazards.

4.3.4. Occupational Health and Safety Challenges and Overworking

Because moonlighting is linked to overworking and health and safety issues, some of the participants asserted that it did not enhance their daily lives. In this regard, CW5 said: “My brother, I am now tired with working now and I can feel I am over-working.’’ CW5’s statement here aligns with Wehr’s (2015) contention that working two jobs is unhealthy, since it leads to work overload, burnout, and fatigue. Concurring, Sangwan (2014) argues that having a second job contributes to employees being overworked and their ill health. It has been discovered that having numerous jobs increases the risk of work and non-work injuries. This is most likely caused by increased tiredness, as well as physical and mental stress from being exposed to chaotic or irregular work environments and schedules (Marucci-Wellman et al., 2014). Multiple jobs' combined effects and interactions have been linked to additional psycho-social stress (Kauri, 2020).

4.3.5. Work-life Imbalance

The study’s results indicate that moonlighting has little impact on how temporary workers experience life. The study’s participants underlined the major issues that arise from having several jobs in relation to creating a work-life balance. One of the participants mentioned that moonlighting makes it challenging for them to balance job and family obligations. In this respect, C3 said: “It’s very difficult to have time with your family because you are always working”. According to McClintock et al. (2004), moonlighting impacts work-life balance, notably family and societal activities. This statement supports the afore-mentioned viewpoints.

5. Conclusions

5.1. Contribution of the Study

By exposing a fresh stream of cutting-edge knowledge on the effectiveness of moonlighting to enhance the experiences of casual employees, this study makes a notable theoretical contribution. The study on the effectiveness of moonlighting, in the researcher's opinion, is timely and has also added to the body of knowledge and theories on moonlighting. Employers would also gain from such a study because they would be made aware of the risks of moonlighting and could then create strategies to control and monitor it.

5.2. Limitations and Direction for Future Studies

The study was not without constraints. The purpose of the study was to determine whether working a second job at a single transnational company in Zimbabwe could enhance the lived experiences of casual employees. The study's conclusions cannot be applied to all transnational manufacturing companies in Zimbabwe, in general. Semi-structured interviews, which have their own research flaws, were employed in this qualitative study. The study's findings may have been better understood with the help of a mixed-methods research design. It is also significant to highlight that the study's sample size was small and did not accurately represent all the casual employees at the relevant Zimbabwean transnational manufacturing company. The results might have been different if the sample size had been larger because it would have shown more information. This study added to knowledge of how moonlighting might enhance temporary workers' daily lives. The abundance of opportunities, though, necessitates further investigation. Using quantitative or mixed-method study approaches, future researchers should investigate the same subject.

5.3. Conclusion

The study’s results show that many casual employees’ experiences were enhanced at the transnational manufacturing firm in Zimbabwe owing to moonlighting. Generally, moonlighting lessens financial and employment concerns related to casual labour. However, a few individuals blamed moonlighting for problems concerning overworking, a lack of a work-life balance and work-related stress. Overall, it can be said that moonlighting effectively enhances the lived experiences of many casual employees at the afore-mentioned transnational manufacturing firm in Zimbabwe. Organizations need to monitor and control moonlighting to prevent conflict of interest issues between primary and secondary jobs because it is now common practice regardless of the type of contract.


Author Contributions: Nyasha Mapira: Writing - Original Draft. Jeremy Mitonga-Monga: Writing, Supervision, Review and Editing. Wilfred Isioma Ukpere: Writing, Supervision, Review and Editing.

Acknowledgements: The Authors acknowledge the study’s participants.

Funding: This research was funded by the Department of Industrial Psychology and People Management, College of Business and Economics, University of Johannesburg.

Conflicts of Interest: The authors state that they have no conflicts of interest.

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Nyasha Mapira, Department of Industrial Psychology and People Management, University of Johannesburg, Johannesburg, South Africa
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