Martha HARUNAVAMWE Rosebud Bekithemba MNQAYI

Exploring the Effect of Continuous Professional Development (CPD) Programs on Employee Performance at Company A in Empangeni, KwaZulu-Natal

Emergency Management Services (EMS) personnel, particularly paramedics, should have crucial clinical decision-making abilities, by developing field or differential diagnoses and impressions. This enables them to make critical decisions pertaining to patient management plans and care. Paramedics among other healthcare professionals are concerned with declining employee performance. There is therefore a need for performance improvement that is dependent on how employees realize continuous professional development (CPD) activities. This study focused on revealing the effect of CPD programs on employee performance at Company A in KwaZulu-Natal. A sample of 10 participants was drawn from the population of Emergency Care Providers working at Company A. A qualitative research methodology was adopted with the employment of purposive non-probability sampling and semi-structured interviews. The study concluded that CPD programs have a very positive effect on the performance of employees, as they considered it a crucial aspect in developing their knowledge, skills and attitudes. The research study further revealed the significance of CPD on paramedic employees by highlighting how they assist the employees in being updated and treating patients according to new evidence-based practices. The study also identified factors that impact employee performance, like teamwork and good leadership. Additionally, it identified strategies which should be implemented by Company A to enhance employee performance: these included employing qualified facilitators, conducting formal CPD programs, and incorporating assessments. The study concluded by providing recommendations to enhance the CPD program, such as establishing ethical guidelines, monitoring and evaluation, crafting coordinated plans, use of technology and investing in quality facilitators.
JEL Classification J24
Full Article

1. Introduction

The healthcare system, specifically emergency medical care, in KwaZulu-Natal is facing an innate crisis with prevalent economic challenges that have spilled into the healthcare service system. The challenges include lack of skilled and motivated healthcare workers, lack of necessary competencies, lack of instruction, lack of motivation and lack of clear performance standards. World organisations are faced with low employee performance and this has led to the birth of the performance management discipline (Wanigasingha et al., 2018). The World Health Organisation (WHO) suggests that there is weak human resources policy implementation at all healthcare system levels leading to weak accountability and poor performance management (WHO, 2017).

Company A, based in Empangeni, KwaZulu-Natal, is one of the top ranked private ambulance companies that focuses on road accidents, critically injured and ill patients within these areas. Paramedics, amongst other healthcare professionals are concerned about poor employee performance. Dobre (2013) suggests that the performance of healthcare systems is dependent on the knowledge, skills and motivation of the people responsible for delivering those services. A key component in performance enhancement is the education and training of healthcare professionals, including emergency care providers.

Several government initiatives over the past few years have been centered around advancing the quality of healthcare services and highlighting problems in the sector (Hodge, Orenstein and Weidenaar, 2014). EMS personnel, predominantly paramedics, are required to develop crucial clinical decision-making abilities, field and differential diagnoses based on clinical assessment (Hodge et al., 2014). To stay ahead of the market, organisations need to ensure a positive and strong rapport with employees to ensure effective task accomplishment (Mathis and Jackson, 2009).

The study focuses on how Continuous Professional Development (CPD) Programs affect paramedic employee’s performance at Company A in KwaZulu-Natal. By knowing the impact of CPD programs on the performance of paramedics, management will be able to make necessary adjustments to training contents, supporting facilities and performance management systems to further improve the provision of CPD.

2. Literature Review

2.1 Conceptualising Employee Performance

Performance refers to the quantity, quality and timeline of output, job attendance, efficiency and effectiveness of executed work (Mathis and Jackson, 2009). When the selected individuals successfully complete tasks assigned and measured by the supervisor against the pre-defined standards, while meritoriously employing the available resources, employee performance is considered to be high (Mathis and Jackson, 2009). For the purposes of this study, performance refers to quality of services executed efficiently and effectively. This is because Company A is in the service industry which does not produce tangible output.

Dobre (2013) points out that it is essential for superiors to comprehend what really drives employees through performance management. Performance management is a means of getting better results from the organisations, teams and individuals by understanding and managing performance within the agreed framework of planned goals and competency requirements (Murphy, 2015). Organisations cannot realise success without a viable performance management system in place. Performance planning, development and reward systems enable the employees to realize their true potential in order to contribute to organisational growth and development.

2.2 CPD Programs and Employee Performance

The CDP in the view of Nassazi (2013), is founded upon the Cognitive Learning Theory (CLT). The aforementioned consider the CLT consider learning to be the function of individual thinking based on factors such as problem-solving skills, thinking skills, memory retention and the perception of materials learnt. Engetou (2017) consider the CLT to be an action oriented and problem focused philosophy. The theory recognises that some behaviours are beyond change, however, the goal is not to change people behaviour, but to groom them within the right environment to promote high performance (Appiah, 2010, p.29). This theory is employed in the current study as it validates the need to enhance employee performance through cognitive learning for mastering problem-solving skills, thinking skills and memory retention in the face of challenges. Such challenges are usually faced by the paramedics in their day to day activities.

Past studies show a positive connection between CPD and employee performance. Scholars that include Tanveer (2015), Degraft-Otoo (2012) and Nassazi (2013) coincided that CPD programs intended to enhance employee knowledge and competencies and maximise employee performance, particularly in this environment defined by cutthroat competition.

Mpofu (2011) conducted a study to uncover the link between service delivery and the quality of CPD programs on the Buffalo City Municipality in South Africa. The study uncovered that human resource department should ascribe value to CPD which is active in refining employee performance and by so doing, it triggers higher organisational performance. Hence, there is need for organisations to implement CPD programs to bridge the performance gap thereby aligning the attitudes and skills of employees to organisational requirements. Moreover, Taylor (2014) highlight that employees are kept abreast to business dynamics in their various fields of speciality through CPD programs.

Emergency Care providers (ECPs) are responsible and accountable for their actions, as they are free to make decisions. ECPs are expected to exhibit proficiency in patient management under complex situations that call for rational decisions for effective problem solving (College of Paramedics, 2015). CPD participation by ECPs is therefore essential to uphold competence, demonstrate accountability and enhance performance (Wenghofer et al., 2015).

2.3 Factors Impacting Employee Performance

Several workplace factors impact on employee performance. The variables can positively or negatively influence performance. These variables include leadership, organisational culture, the working environment and level of motivation (Akmal, 2015). Moreover, training have implications on employee performance (Muda et al., 2014). Poor performance in workplace can be attributed to a number of factors, for example, lack of necessary competencies, lack of training or instruction, lack of motivation, lack of clear performance standards, or some underlying medical and/or personal problem which is affecting performance at work (Ali, 2014).

2.4 Ways of Measuring Employee Performance

Nisha (2014) opines that performance is centered on the effectiveness and efficiency in executing tasks. The aforementioned emphasise that performance depends on the nature of the organisation and the task. For instance, the service sector usually views serving many customers within allocated time to be exceptional performance. This corroborates the view of Mpofu (2011) who underscore that employee performance within the service sector cannot be possessed physically. Tshikovhi (2012) argue that for service sectors, high performance is seen in the light of quality service that depends on expertise. The tangible evidence of such quality service is the satisfaction of clients.

2.5 Continuous Professional Development (CPD) Programs

According to McDonnell and Zutshi (2006), CPD is a continuous and planned development or learning processes that fosters workers to expand and accomplish their potential thereby contributing to personal development and work-based competences that influence organisational performance. Wanigasingha et al. (2018) highlight that CPD relates to any activity that grow knowledge, understanding, experience and progresses performance as well as lifelong learning. It is the responsibility of leaders to ensure that effective CPD programs are implemented and employees have own development plans (Kin and Mathuvay, 2011). Activities under learning include formal programs, on-the-job development and informal qualification opportunities and experience-based learning (Muda et al., 2014). Emergency care professionals undergo CPD that contribute directly to quality service improvement that is rendered to patients, that is, patient management improvement (McDonnell and Zutshi, 2016, p.15).

CPD programs assist employees to acquire technical know-how, new skills and capabilities for problem-solving which ultimately result in improved employee performance (Akmal, 2015). Further, continuous training is aimed to up existing employee level of knowledge and to amend skills so that employees are better fitted to execute present and higher tasks requiring higher competencies (Ali, 2014). CPD programs ensure that employees derive satisfaction from their jobs (Aguinis, 2009).

2.6 CPD Programs Effect on Paramedics’ Performance

The Health Professionals Board of South Africa (HPCSA) considers CPD to be a mechanism whereby paramedics can continuously improve and maintain their competencies and careers. HPCSA specifically endorses CPD as a channel to realise professional standards, appraisal and revalidation. CPD is key to HPCSA’s practice standards in the knowledge, performance and skills domains. Wenghofer et al. (2015) consider these standards to command professional knowledge currency and competence and skills in all work aspects and monitoring for ensuring quality assurance. Effective CPD is instrumental for enhanced competence and patient care.

According to Gibbs (2010), there are risks in not addressing the CPD needs of employees such as lack of healthcare competitiveness; suboptimal patient care; low morale; staff retention and recruitment problems. On the contrary, conversely, effective CPD results in workforce flexibility allowing cost effective use of staff; improved patient care; improved individual morale; superior career development; and value-added employee strategic planning (Gibbs, 2010).

3. Research Methodology

3.1 Research Design

Exploratory research design was used in the study. The rationale behind the selection of this design was that an exploratory research design outlines the topic and or the subject that had not been elaborated and researched in-depth and more detailed, and where contending explanations had never been essentially investigated (Lapan et al., 2012, p.17).

3.2 Paradigms of Research

The underlying philosophy for this study was anti-foundationalist ontology and a phenomenological epistemology, with the assumption that meaning was socially constructed, and derived from the context within which it occurred (Saunders, Lewis and Thornhill, 2009). The principal aim was not to measure, but rather to understand, at a deeper level, meaning from the perspective of the researched. Phenomenological approaches were particularly concerned with understanding behaviour from the participants’ own subjective frames of reference (Saunders et al., 2009).

3.3 Research Methodology, Strategy and Site

The researcher chose the qualitative research method with a phenomenological strategy for the study. The rationale behind the chosen method was that qualitative research does not measure, but rather attempts to understand, at a deeper level, meaning from the perspective of the research as allowed by the phenomenological approach (Saunders et al., 2009). The study was conducted at Company A, Empangeni, KwaZulu-Natal.

3.4 Research Instrument

Interviews were an appropriate data collection tool for this study. The rationale behind this chosen data collection instrument was based on the research design. The researcher scheduled face to face, semi-structured interviews, questions were answered in relation to participants views, experience and well as individual perceptions. Verbatim quotes capture the language and meaning expressed by participants. Data was obtained immediately; interviewees could be probed further; non-verbal responses were also observed.

3.5 Target Population

The target population for this study were Emergency Care Providers working at Company A, specifically under the Northern region of KwaZulu Natal - Empangeni Base, which comprised of 23 registered paramedics. In this case, paramedics constituted the target population, as it was not possible to include all staff.

3.6 Sampling

This research employed non-probability purposive sampling. The sample was drawn from all the Emergency Care Providers working at Company A; a sample of 10 participants (paramedics). The researcher’s discretion was therefore required.

3.7 Data Analysis

Thematic data analysis reduces voluminous data to uncover patterns that address the research question (Meyers, 2014, p.94). In this research, the thematic analysis was employed to analyse the data. The inductive approach was used through initially collecting data pertinent to the topic of interest, followed by analysis to produce a more refined appreciation of findings (Taylor-Powell and Renner, 2003).

4. Results, Analysis and Discussion

4.1 Results Interpretation, Analysis and Discussion

The primary research findings were broken down to themes and then categorised before being coded. In the view of Larry (2015), categories are important and can be derived from the theoretical orientation before the research in line with questions being addressed by the study. Sinkovics et al. (2008) agree that the categories are principally identified with the questions asked.

Theme 1: Effect of CPD programs on Ambulance employee performance.

· How CPD influences performance

The first question posed to participants sought to understand how CPD influence performance. The analysis of the findings revealed three main codes which were to enhance competencies, revive existing knowledge and keeping employees up to date.

These outcomes concur with the view of McDonnell and Zutshi (2016) who viewed CPD to be a continuous and planned development process that enable employees to expand and accomplish their potential. This contributes to personal development and work-based competences that influence organisational performance (McDonnell and Zutshi, 2016). Tanveer (2015), Degraft-Otoo (2012) and Nassazi (2013) corroborated that CPD programs intended to enhance employee knowledge and competencies maximise employee performance particularly in this environment defined by cutthroat competition.

· Benefitsbrought by CPD programs

The participants were asked if there were any benefits that are brought about by CPD programs in the advancing of their working conditions. Analysis of the contributions by some participants attest to the notion that CPD programs also foster compliance. The HPCSA also requires paramedics to undergo CPD programs which will also be audited. In this sense, CPDs are important for ensuring compliance as non-compliant organisations may risk losing their licenses, reputation and even profitability.

According to some participants CPD programs are an eye opener to new events and scenarios. Akmal (2015) concur that CPD programs are important to employees given the dynamics in technology, business growth and health policies to combat new health threats. This implies that employees can be kept in touch with the changes which results in effectiveness and high employee performance beneficial to the organisation.

· Indicators used to Measure Performance

Armstrong (2009) posits that organisations can employ different measures to assess employee performance. Participants submitted that the main indicator of performance is the Patient Report Forms (PRF). This measure can be considered to be based on client feedback. Participants also suggested that meetings that are conducted by management and employees indicates performance and helps to identify issues and find ways of addressing them. It is during these deliberations that workers can measure their performance based on the outcomes of meetings. Debriefing cases were also identified as a major indicator of employee performance. Although debriefing was highlighted, the analysis of the literature shows that it is difficult to measure the performance of services rendered, in an industry such as the ambulance industry.

Theme 2: Significance of CPD on paramedic employees.

· Importance of CPD programs to the paramedic profession

McDonnell and Zutshi, (2016) highlight that emergency care professionals undergo CPD that contribute directly to quality service improvement rendered to patients as per changes in the industry. Therefore, CPD programs are instrumental in making employees conversant to patient treatment according to new evidence-based practices.

The ambulance service, by nature, requires skills to attend to critical patients. This requires expertise to operate complex machinery as highlighted by the interviewed employees. Again, it is commonly accepted that CPD enhances operational skills as evidenced by Nassazi (2013), who accentuated that CPD is a tool to arm the inimitable assets of the business- the employees. This is consistent with the findings of Taylor (2014) who consider CPD to be significant as it equips the workforce to contest eco-technological deviations in the global environment. It can therefore be deduced that CPD is an important way of enhancing employee performance.

· How CPD programs address issues of Knowledge, Skills and Attitude.

Participants gave different viewpoints that support CPD programs as important for addressing knowledge, skills and attitude. Swart et al. (2015, p.41) elaborate that there is need for organisations to implement CPD programs to bridge the performance gap thereby molding attitudes and skills of employees in alignment to organisational requirements.

Kin and Mathuvay (2011) validate the notion by arguing that the training professionals should assist the learner in improving their learning by including graphic materials such as; mind maps, diagrams and pictures as well as other practical ways to foster skills development.

· Impact of CPD on employee performance

The study went on to investigate the impact of CPD on employee performance. All participants concurred that CPD positively impacts on employee performance; this was through reminding and equipping them with new skills, cultivating desired behaviour and addressing mistakes.

The analysis of the contributions highlight that CPD impact positively on employee performance as they are used as a platform to address employee mistakes that would have been uncovered by the debriefings, patient reports and meetings. Mpofu (2011) uncovered that the human resource department should ascribe value to CPD which is active in redefining and refining worker performance and by so doing, it triggers higher employee performance. This is further validated by Muda et al. (2014) who consider CPD to be a window of addressing worker weaknesses. The study uncovered that CPD programs are central to high employee performance.

Theme 3: Factors that impact on employee performance

· Main factors that contribute to employee performance

Gusdorf (2009) posits that organisations striving to realise high employee involvement should promote cooperation through encouraging team members to work in harmony. In agreement, Mathis and Jackson (2009) stress that the world is becoming more multifaceted such that the necessity for teams have continued to grow. These teams such as high-performance teams foster high employee performance as employees can collaborate on ideas in the face of critical situations.

Tshikovhi (2012) touched on the importance of resources as a factor affecting employee performance and underlined that high employee performance is realised if the business devotes adequate time and resources for the workforce.

According to Ali (2014), leadership is an important factor in moderating behaviour of employees. Adequate leadership positively affects team performance. By constantly focusing on developing followers’ potential a leader will generate climate and norm of helping where workers will learn from each other and develop (Akmal, 2015). Leadership is also responsible for ensuring that effective CPD programs are implemented and employees have their own development plans (Kin and Mathuvay, 2011).

Training, in the form of CPDs is an important factor affecting employee performance. With reference to the reviewed literature, Anyango (2011) and Muda et al. (2014) substantiate that to improve employee performance, training has turn out to be an important technique.

· Source of employee Inspiration

From the data analysed, it can be seen that leadership at Company A is concerned with the workforce as it looks into the working conditions and adheres to the legislative requirements which may include employee rights. Tshikovhi (2012) concurs that the leadership style produces a climate that will influence employees to alter behaviours thereby reflecting their attitude and personality.

The importance of rewards has been a subject of research dating back to the onset of the industrial revolution steered by theorists such as Taylor, Maslow and Herzberg (as cited MacDowall and Saunders, 2016). Rewards remain a source of inspiration and it is important to ensure that employees are appropriately rewarded.

Nisha, (2014) highlight that cross-training and CPD foster team spirit as employees are capable of appreciating the challenges confronted by their co-workers. Given the existence of training at Company A, it is highly likely that employee’s complement each other well.

Theme 4: Strategies to enhance employees Performance

· Strategies the company should implement

The desire for high performance makes it important to come up with strategies to attain this. Three main strategies were highlighted by the participants. These were introducing incentives, reinforce CPD with practical lessons and to employ all relevant labour laws.

Incentives such as bonuses were considered important by the participants. Muda et al. (2014) opine that to encourage higher performance, autonomy given to subordinates should be accompanied by proportionate incentives to effectively employ HR to realise their competitive advantage.

Participants highlighted that there is need for a facilitator who can also reinforce CPD with practical exercises. This is consistent with the behaviourist learning theories that focus on the associations between stimuli and specific behaviours, skills and competencies engraved in training methods through repeated instructions, role plays, reinforcement and repeated task practice (Kinicki and Kreitner, 2017).

In South Africa, there are several labour laws that tend to be overlooked by private organisations such as minimum payment and working hours. These, if fully embraced, can ensure high performance.

· Recommendations to advance the approach of CPD.

Joint CPD with other companies

Integration with top ambulance companies was considered imperative to come up with viable strategies and to identify loopholes in CPD programs.

Appointing a facilitator

The facilitator was considered important in advancing CPD provision as well as the approach.

Making CPD compulsory

Attendance to CPD programs was recommended to be made compulsory. Participants further stated that CPD for other ranks like ILS and ALS should be considered; also, that there should be enough time for the provision of CPD.

4.2 Findings from the Literature Review

CPD programs effect on employee performance

In the literature, McDonnell and Zutshi (2006, p.15) viewed CPD as a continuous and planned development or learning process that fosters workers to expand and accomplish their potential thereby contributing to personal development and work-based competences that influence organisational performance. Additionally, CPD seeks to enable an employee to attain abilities to perform assigned tasks effectively and adequately (Kin and Mathuvay, 2011). It is the responsibility of leaders to ensure that effective CPD programs are implemented and employees have own development plans (McDonnell and Zutshi, 2006, p.15).

The HPCSA specifically endorses CPD as a channel to realise professional standards, appraisal and revalidation. Wenghofer et al. (2015, p.265) consider these standards to command professional knowledge currency and competence and skills in all work aspects and monitoring for ensuring quality assurance.

Effectiveness of CPD provision methods to paramedic employees

Gusdorf (2009, p.5) posits that training needs should be determined by careful analysis of performance gaps. Where continuous development helps to readjust the gap between what should happen and what is happening and also the gap between expected target and actual performance of the employees (Sultana et al., 2012). Ali (2014, p.24) noted that organisational training should be based on the learning approaches and theories for it to be well understood. Guillaume (2013) highlighted that scenario-based simulation corroborated with appropriate technology can be beneficial. Ali (2014, p.24) considered training program success to rely on business ability to uncover employee needs and equip trainees with the vital skills. Martin (2012) noted that CPD need to be recorded to provide evidence of the development and competence together with evaluation record demonstrating achievement of learning results.

Strategies to enhance employee performance

Several government initiatives over the past few years centered on advancing the healthcare provision to address the growing needs of the citizens (Gibbs, 2010). These initiatives added up to an affirmative duty of healthcare service provision to specific individuals by the government that even lead to potential claims for negligent services by individuals (Hodge et al., 2014). Guillaume (2013) highlighted that the CPD program is an operational arrangement and the organisations should selectively prioritise it for employee skills development and emphasize on accommodating the current and future requirements.

Udani (2012) underscored that organisations benefit from investing in employees. Thus, it is important for management to always ascertain actions they can do for employees to enhance their competence, productivity and business competitiveness in the global arena. Kin and Mathuvay (2011) affirmed that training should be augmented by leadership support systems. Monitoring and evaluation should be targeted at uncovering benefits of the training process. The empirical literature on productivity highlighted that practical training is important for healthcare practitioners to embitter their abilities as well as to modify the behaviour with all stakeholders (Amyan, 2016).

4.3 Findings from the Primary Research

Objective 1: Effect of CPD programs on Company A employee performance

The study revealed that all Company A employees are participating in CPD programs regardless of the rank or qualification they possess. Employees regarded CPD programs offered by the company and considered it as a crucial aspect in developing their knowledge, skills and attitudes.

Objective 2: The significance of continuous professional development on paramedic employees.

Most respondents had highlighted that CPD programs are crucial in paramedics’ profession as paramedics deal with peoples’ lives. One mistake could lead to death of a patient. Continuous update is the key to good service delivery with minimal mortality rate. Participants also elaborated that CPD programs helped them to keep updated and treat patients according to new evidence-based practices.

Objective 3: Factors that impact on employee performance within Company A.

Most respondents considered team work to have contributed to a good performance amongst employees. This was evidenced by seeing clients who had been treated by a well-coordinated team of paramedics being discharged and conveying appreciation to the company. Other participants opined that the managers of Company A to possessed good leadership skills and that contributed to good performing employees since they are enthusiastic in transforming their workers and the organisation itself.

Objective 4: Strategies the company should implement to enhance employees Performance.

CPD programs have been identified as the strategy of endearing the hearts and minds of workers and creating an employee identity. The primary research findings discovered that the company should review the issue of a qualified facilitator to conduct CPD for the entire company. Incentives were suggested to be instrumental to enhancing performance. The facilitator should possess training skills and design learning tools that are appropriate and relevant to activities being facilitated. The respondents further elaborated that CPD programs should be formal and incorporate assessments for every activity conducted. Finally, respondents suggested that the company should implement all relevant labour laws.

5. Conclusions and Recommendations

5.1 Conclusion

The conclusion drawn from this study highly reveals that there is a significant impact of continuous professional development programs on paramedics’ employees and an exposed constructive effect on the employees of Company A. CPD programs at KZPA ware deemed to advance paramedics skills, knowledge and attitude; this had potentially reduced the running costs of the service whilst improving focus and quality of the employees as well as service delivery.

The study concludes that at Company A ethical guidelines are the key to encourage professionalism for the workers of Emergency Medical Services as they provide the basis for the CPD.A well thought out coordinated plan is important for management, employees and other relevant Emergency Medical Services. This fosters collaboration which translates to mutual trust, honesty, knowledge sharing and creates effective awareness on the CPD programs.

Facilitators are deemed important to nature and guide employees thereby enhancing the performance of the organization.

Technology is considered important for CPD programs for example, social media can enhance collaboration.

Monitoring and evaluation mechanism are important to keep assessing employee skills to identify the need for CPD and any skills gap that can be embedded in CPD programs.

5.2 Recommendations

The study provides the following recommendations, based on the conclusions and study findings, to the management of Company A as well as other relevant Emergency Medical Services:

· Establishing Ethical Guidelines

For the Company’s initiatives of Continuous Program Development to be a success, the study recommends that the company should establish ethical guidelines that encourage professionalism for doctors and the workers for Emergency Medical Services. This will ensure that the core values, beliefs and culture of the company is well adhered to religiously. This in turn will enhance the image or reputation of the company. The ethical guidelines provide the basis for the CPD and it should ensure that all the targets are achieved and hence motivate workers and doctors alike.

· Crafting a Co-ordinated Plan

Company A must come up with a well-coordinated plan that is inclusive of the management, employees and other relevant Emergency Medical Services personnel. There should be regular management meetings that address the inputs of the employees and Emergency Medical Services so that the CDP programs are based on these inputs and hence tailor made to suit the needs of the employees.

· Promoting Collaboration amongst Employees

Company A should promote collaboration amongst its employees as it creates mutual trust and honesty among each other. Furthermore, collaboration encourages knowledge sharing and creates effective awareness on the CPD program. For collaboration to work, the management team should encourage peer to peer visit within their departments and at the same time strengthening peer to peer instruction.

· Investing in Quality Facilitators

CPD programs can only produce the best results if the trainers are highly skilled and qualified. Company A should ensure that they invest in high quality trainers that deep in knowledge and well versed with the CPD programs. This can be done through any intensive recruitment and selection drive that ensures that the right people are employed for the right job.

· Use of Technology

The company can take advantage of the current advancement of technology and make it easy for all employees to access CPD programs, hence perform their duties from a well-informed perspective. This can be achieved by making use of the social media. This can help in cost reduction and can have a greater impact in terms of influence of the CPD programs.

· Monitoring and Evaluation

Company A should implement a monitoring mechanism that will assist them in extracting and analyzing information about the CPD which will result in them being able to track or assess the progress being made by the CPD programs and how they impact on employee performance. If there are any hiccups in terms of the CPD programs, it will be easy to identify them and rectify immediately. On the other hand, evaluation mechanism will assist in quickly identifying the immediate accomplishments of the CPD programs and the same time examines the results so as to establish the achievements and lack of achievements. This can result in the performance of the employees being enhanced as they will be well aware of what is expected from them.

5.3 Conclusion

The role of emergency care providers is drastically changing. The Department of Health had recognised that the development of paramedics is an entryway to comply with transformation and procedures required by the HPCSA. The literature points to the development of employees in line with the government legislative prescripts supported by companies’ formal protocols, to result in well-coordinated and good performing workers. This research has successfully revealed a positive relationship between CPD and employee performance at Company A in KwaZulu-Natal.

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© 2021 The Authors. Published by Sprint Investify. ISSN 2359-7712. This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. Creative Commons License
Corresponding Author
Rosebud Bekithemba Mnqayi, MANCOSA Graduate School of Business, 16 Samora Machel St, Durban Central, Durban, 4001, South Africa
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MANCOSA Graduate School of Business, South Africa

Rosebud Bekithemba MNQAYI
MANCOSA Graduate School of Business, South Africa