KeywordsAdolescent Entrepreneurial Orientation entrepreneurship Leisure Time
JEL Classification M30
We acknowledge the support and generosity of Kemenristek Dikti Republic of Indonesia as well as Penelitian Terapan Unggulan Perguruan Tinggi (PTUPT) 2018 for this research.
In the Indonesian context, entrepreneurship is an important thing to continue to develop today. The Central Bureau of Statistics (2018) released that the open unemployment rate in Indonesia reached 5.13% of the total workforce, which amounted to 133.94 million people. Creating start-up companies through entrepreneurship is the best way to reduce unemployment and create new jobs (Schmitt-Rodermund and Vondracek, 2002). Based on the results of the study, Dilanchiev (2014) revealed that there is a significant negative relationship between entrepreneurial behavior and the number of unemployed people.
Entrepreneurial orientation is an important construct when talking about entrepreneurship (Bolton and Lane, 2012). Tang et al. (2008) revealed that, at a certain point, entrepreneurial orientation is an important predictor in determining the performance and growth of a company. Bolton and Lane (2012) also revealed that understanding individual entrepreneurial orientation will be useful to improve the world of entrepreneurship in the future. This is supported by the results of a longitudinal study from Saw and Schneider (2012) involving 9,000 US High School students. His findings reveal that the level of entrepreneurial orientation in adolescents will have an impact on career determination after the end of the 20's. Someone who has a high level of entrepreneurial orientation, when a teenager, he or she will tend to be a business owner when they grow up.
Being a successful entrepreneur can be identified early from adolescence or even childhood (Schmitt-Rodermund, 2004). Adolescence is an important time to develop entrepreneurial potential, especially in the context of high school. Students will identify and understand their own learning system which will be harvested later when they are adults (Filion, 1994). Honjo (2004) also revealed that companies founded by relatively young individuals, namely in their 30s, will tend to have more rapid development. Therefore, it becomes very important to foster entrepreneurship since adolescence to support individual careers as entrepreneurs since a relatively young age (Vega et al., 2016).
2. Literature Review
2.1. Entrepreneurial Orientation
According to Lumpkin and Dess (1996), entrepreneurial orientation consists of five dimensions, including autonomy, risk-taking, proactiveness, competitive-aggressiveness, and innovativeness. Autonomy is the independence in work and decision making to find the right solution to advance its business; risk taking emphasizes the exploration of unknown things, borrowing money, and allocating significant resources for business development in uncertain situations; proactiveness is the act of anticipating problems or needs that might occur in the future, seeing new opportunities, and being able to adjust to existing changes; competitive aggressiveness is an attempt to face competitors / competitors directly accompanied by an aggressive response to outperform competitors; innovative is the tendency to involve yourself in creativity and experimentation through the introduction of new products, services, and research development (Lumpkin and Dess, 1996; Djodjobo and Tawas, 2014).
Lumpkin and Dess (1996) explained that entrepreneurial orientation refers to processes, practices, and decision-making activities to produce new things so that there needs to be intentions and actions from key players in a dynamic generative process to generate new businesses. According to Robinson (2001), entrepreneurial orientation can be influenced by three factors: individual, organizational, and environmental factors. Individual factors include independence and individual commitment to entrepreneurship; organizational factors include culture, organizational structure, strategies, and resources in organizations that support entrepreneurship; while environmental factors are heterogeneous and dynamic environments that will stimulate organizations to compete (Robinson, 2001). Bolton and Lane (2012) describe three factors that can influence entrepreneurial orientation, namely environment, personality, and attitudes toward entrepreneurship.
2.2. Leisure Time
When linked to the above factors, the main activity that is usually carried out by teenagers in general is to attend school. After school and the homework that must be completed, usually, teenagers will have free time or what is called leisure time. Leisure time can be a personality factor and attitude towards entrepreneurship that affects entrepreneurial orientation where through this activity teenagers have activities that are liked and in accordance with their personal interests and this activity can also be an opportunity to produce their own work. UN (2003) revealed that Asian teenagers spend a quarter or even a third of their time on leisure time. Furthermore, UN (2003) revealed that how a teenager utilizes leisure time is an important thing to support young people to develop and engage in certain things to achieve positive results in various aspects. Aspects that can be developed include aspects of social / emotional, vocational, physical, cognitive, civic development and engagement. Rahim et al. (2011) also revealed that how teenagers spend leisure time will determine their role in the social environment, attitudes, and social experience. How a teenager spends leisure time will contribute significantly to his physical, intellectual and emotional development.
Leisure time can be defined as fun activities at leisure that are characterized by freedom and provide intrinsic satisfaction (Chang et al., 2014). Other opinions from Bradley and Inglis (2012) said that leisure time is activities carried out during free time, and usually activities chosen based on intrinsic pleasure. Bradley and Inglis (2012) divided leisure time into two categories, namely structured and unstructured. Leisure time structured has a predetermined time and duration, there are goals that have been set, there are rules that have been standardized and supervised by adults. Conversely, unstructured leisure time is a more spontaneous activity and is directly determined by participants (Bradley and Inglis, 2012).
Through leisure time, someone can restored physical and social resources from stressful conditions, gained social support from others, and enriched the meaning of life. Paillard-Bong, Wang, Winblad, and Fratiglioni (2009; Chang et al., 2014) suggested there are 5 types of leisure time, namely mental, social, physical, productive, and recreation. Another opinion expressed by Silverstein and Parker (2002; Chang et al. (2014) divides leisure time into 6 types, namely culture-entertainment, productive-personal growth, outdoor-physical, recreation-expressive, friendship, and formal -group, where the results of their study found that the type of friendship has the highest influence on the quality of life in Sweden. When a person has a higher quality social relationship, he or she will usually be more motivated to do leisure time.
Generally, leisure time carried out by most teenagers is a fun and preferred activity to fill leisure time, such as hobbies of traveling, sports, reading, making crafts, and playing gadgets. Today, leisure time is an inseparable part of human life because leisure time can provide a relaxed atmosphere and reduce tension or stress conditions. In addition, leisure time can also be an activity that leads to a career. Based on Munson and Savickas (1998), the stronger the activity or frequency of doing leisure time, the stronger the exploration behavior towards related careers. However, this type of leisure time has never been studied what drives career exploration in the field of entrepreneurship. Therefore, further research is needed regarding "Are there differences of adolescent entrepreneurial orientation based on their leisure time?". It is expected that by knowing the use of effective leisure time, it can help teenagers to be able to apply ideas into opportunities that can be realized, understand themselves well, and be able to solve existing problems by exploring alternatives that can be done (Santrock, 2014). Also, later, they are expected to have an entrepreneurial mentality (Muhammad, 2014).
3. Research Methodology
This study uses a quantitative approach because it allows researchers to measure the response of many people with a number of statements (Gravetter and Forzano, 2012). This research is also comparative because it aims to compare differences in entrepreneurial orientation in terms of leisure time. The population of this study were students at junior high school and senior high school levels located in Jakarta, Tangerang and Bandung in Indonesia. Sampling using convenience sampling technique, which is sampling based on the availability of the subject (Gravetter and Forzano, 2012). The number of samples in this study was 182 people.
Data collection was carried out using a scale prepared by the research team. The scale used is the scale of entrepreneurial orientation which is arranged using a Likert scale where there are five answer choices, namely 1 = very rare, 2 = rare, 3 = sometimes, 4 = often, and 5 = very often. The items of the statement are arranged based on the dimensions of entrepreneurial orientation, namely innovativeness, risk taking, proactiveness, autonomy, and competitive aggressiveness. The innovative dimension explains how often teenagers explore opportunities, bring up creative ideas, and start applying them in their daily activities. The risk taking dimension measures how often adolescents act bravely in situations of uncertainty and there is the possibility of experiencing the risk of loss in order to achieve a positive goal. The proactiveness dimension describes how often teenagers bring personal initiatives, take roles, encourage, and voice changes in their environment. The autonomy dimension explains how often adolescents strive independently in carrying out an activity. Competitive aggressiveness dimensions measure how often teenagers exhibit competitive behavior whose main focus is not to win but to gain competitive experiences that facilitate their personal development. Data leisure time is obtained from one of the hobbies chosen by the subject based on 5 hobby choices, including playing gadget, sports, art, engaging in work that implies using hand skills, and traveling.
Validity of the test describes what is being measured by a test tool and how well the test instrument can measure what is being measured (Chadha, 2009). In this study, researchers used corrected item to total correlation technique by correlating the total test scores and scores for each statement item. The statement items in this scale are 52 items and have a CITC value> 0.3 so that it can be said that it has good validity. Reliability The instrument of research (reliability) shows the consistency of the subject scores on the measuring instrument (Chadha, 2009). Reliability test is intended to find out whether the measuring instruments used in this study are reliable, consistent and trustworthy. In this study, the researcher used Cronbach's alpha coefficient, which was aimed at measuring instruments with more than two answer choices or in the form of an attitude scale. The results showed that the five dimensions had good reliability with a magnitude of α ≥ 0,7of which was innovative with α = 0.824; risk taking with α = 0.807; proactiveness with α = 0.813; autonomy with α = 0.762; aggressiveness competes with α = 0.832. The analysis technique used in this study is Anova because the purpose of this research is to see the differences in entrepreneurial orientation in terms of five hobbies, including playing gadgets, arts, sports, hand skills, and traveling.
4. Analysis and Results
In this study, the number respondents was 182 students divided into 91 students from the junior high school level and 91 students from the high school level. Based on this number, there were 76 men and 106 women. Data collection was conducted in three cities, including 55 students residing in Jakarta; 65 students reside in Tangerang; and 62 students live in Bandung. The following is a table of characteristics of the research respondents:
Table 1. Characteristics of Respondents (n = 182)
|Class||Junior High School||91||50|
|Senior High School||91||50|
Table 2Mean and Standard Distribution
Based on the results of the average comparison, it can be concluded that the gadget has the lowest average score when compared to the other five leisure times for each dimension of entrepreneurial orientation. In other words it can be said, someone who makes a gadget as leisure time tends to have a lower entrepreneurial orientation when compared to other leisure times. On the other hand, someone who has leisure time in the field of hand skills tends to have a higher entrepreneurial orientation compared to other leisure times.
Through tests of normality and homogeneity, the research data is said to be normally distributed and homogeneous (p> 0.05) so that it can be continued with parametric statistical calculations. Based on the results of ANOVA calculations, it can be concluded that there are significant differences between the dimensions of innovative, risk taking, proactiveness, and autonomy with leisure time (p <0.05). Whereas in the competitive aggressiveness dimension, it was found that there was no significant difference between competitive agrressiveness dimensions and leisure time (p> 0.05). Overall, it can be concluded that there are significant differences between entrepreneurial orientation and leisure time.
Table 3.Anova results
5. Discussion and Conclusion
Hand skills do not only require hand dexterity in doing things, but also dexterity in thinking. Skills require the ability to act quickly to solve difficulties encountered. In line with the personality theory according to Holland, individuals who have a hobby in the field of hand skills are identical to the type of realistic personality. Realistic types like work activities that involve problems and practical solutions and use equipment and materials at work (Shatkin, 2007). The results of previous studies indicate that realistic personality types are those who have extraversion and conscientious characters that tend to be high (Kaufman, Pumacchua, and Holt, 2013). According to Leutner, et al. (2014), Big-Five personality can predict creation intentions, and success in business. Leutner's research, et.al. (2014) found that extraversion personality can predict business success so that it can be said, extroverted teenagers tend to like entrepreneurial activities, such as starting a new business, finding new methods to help people, and having entrepreneurial behavior within an organization. Personality conscientiousness has a positive relationship with entrepreneurial self-efficacy, meaning that the higher the conscientiousness trait that teenagers have, the higher their confidence in entrepreneurship (Mortan, et al., 2014).
Through activities that require a lot of hand skills, one can develop the character of autonomy because he is required to complete his work with his own abilities and resolve challenges or difficulties that arise in the process. Autonomy itself can be interpreted as independence in working and decision making in order to find the right solution to advance its business (Lumpkin and Dess, 1996; Djodjobo and Tawas, 2014). In addition, individuals can also develop innovative characters because they actively see new opportunities to develop their skills and produce work that has added value. Innovativeness is the tendency to involve yourself in creativity and experimentation through the introduction of products, services, and development (Lumpkin and Dess, 1996; Djodjobo and Tawas, 2014).
Hand skills serve to fulfill human psychological needs for leisure, pleasure and leisure activities. But on the other hand, the learning process in activities that requires hand skills can also shape productive character, likes to work hard, be diligent, innovative, and appreciate the work of your own creation. These characters are aligned with realistic personalities that have practical value, are productive, and like concrete things at work (Kemboi, Kindiki, and Misigo, 2016). This personality type has an orientation towards hobbies / interests related to equipment and likes to build or improve things (Armstrong and Rounds, 2008).
This hand skill activity is also considered as one of the craft sub-sectors in the creative economy because it is based on one's ideas and creativity for knowledge, cultural heritage, and also the technology he knows. When hand skills can produce outputs from the utilization of individual creativity, expertise, and talent to create added value, employment, and a good quality of life, it can be said as part of the creative industry (Narjoko, Anas, and Awiscahyono, 2015). On the economic and creative industries side, understanding hand skills or handicrafts focuses more on the value creation process. Hand skills or handicrafts are produced by having a function or function in everyday life and can provide benefits to the creator (Narjoko, Anas, and Awiscahyono, 2015). This confirms that individuals who have a hobby / interest in the field of hand skills tend to have a higher entrepreneurial orientation where the hobby of hand skills can increase innovative characters from individuals by creating added value from the work produced through hand skills.
Other results found are individuals who like to play gadgets as a form of their hobbies have a lower entrepreneurial orientation. A gadget or smartphone is a telephone that is integrated with an internet connection so that it cannot only be used for telephone but also chat, play games and online social media functions. According to the results of Syarif's research (2015), there was a significant effect between gadget user behavior on interpersonal communication on grade 3 Vocational High School students, where students were more likely to use gadgets in daily communication so that there were limitations to interacting directly (face to face). ) Other studies also revealed similar results where using gadgets presented a significant relation to the level of adolescent dependence to gadget and the level of adolescent dependence was also significantly associated with social interaction (Muflih, Hamzah, and Puniawan, 2017). According to Desiningrum, Indriana, and Siswati (2017), excessive and inappropriate use of gadgets will make a person not care about the surrounding environment.
In adolescents, this indifference can blunt the ability to empathize, the ability to express emotions properly, effective emotional management, and emotional intelligence (Desiningrum, Indriana, and Siswati, 2017). On the other hand, to be an entrepreneur requires empathy and high emotional intelligence. Mortan's et al. (2014) research found that two dimensions of emotional intelligence, namely regulation and emotional use, positively influence entrepreneurial self-efficacy and have a positive relationship with intention in entrepreneurship. That is, the better the emotional regulation and use of adolescents, the more they have the confidence and intention to become entrepreneurs. Humprey (2013) also argues that an entrepreneur who has a high level of emotional intelligence and empathy tends to be more able to survive when facing obstacles in his business, can work more effectively when facing customers, employees and other parties, can overcome work situations that stressful and more innovative.
Using gadgets make teenagers experience difficulties in social adaptation so they cannot anticipate problems or needs that might occur in the future. Teenagers allocate all their free time to play gadgets so they cannot see the opportunities that exist in the environment for their development. This shows that adolescents who have a hobby of playing gadgets tend to be less proactive and lack the nature of competing to pursue better achievements in which the two characters are part of entrepreneurial orientation. Thus, it can be concluded that the dimensions of entrepreneurial orientation that tend to be lower are in the proactiveness dimension and competitive aggressiveness. Proactiveness is an action to anticipate problems or needs that might occur in the future, see new opportunities, and be able to adjust to existing changes while competitive aggressiveness is an attempt to face competitors directly with an aggressive response to outperform competitors; innovativeness is the tendency to involve yourself in creativity and experimentation through the introduction of new products, services, and research development (Lumpkin and Dess, 1996; Djodjobo and Tawas, 2014).
Through this research, it can be concluded that leisure time in the field of hand skills has the potential to develop entrepreneurial orientation in adolescents, which can foster the character of innovativeness, productive, autonomous, and have the drive to achieve quality works. Conversely, leisure time playing gadget can blunt entrepreneurial orientation in adolescents because this hobby decreases the ability to empathize, emotional intelligence, and youth sensitivity to see opportunities in the environment in developing their potential.
Suggestions for further research can explore other variations of hobbies in adolescents so that they are not limited to the four hobbies discussed in this study. In addition, parents and teachers can provide guidance to adolescents in making hobbies that are more productive and support entrepreneurial orientation.
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